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Assessment Questions 9-18 9. Why was sea travel important to early Greeks? Answer: Mountains made travel by land difficult. 10. Why did the Greeks develop myths? Answer: to explain mysteries of nature and human behavior and teach cultural values. 11. What were the two most powerful city-states in early Greece? Answer: Athens and Sparta 12. What were the consequences of the Persian Wars? Answer: City-states formed the Delian League; Athens became the dominant city-state, a flourishing of creativity in Athens. 13. What were Pericles’ three goals for Athens? Answer: strengthen Athenian democracy, maintain and expand the Athenian empire, glorify Athens. 14. Who were the three renowned philosophers of the Golden Age? Answer: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle 15. Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia? Answer: Greek city-states were weakened and divided after the Peloponnesian War. Philip II had a powerful army and used brilliant military tactics. 16. What was the full extent of Alexander’s empire after his death? Answer: Greece in the West, Macedonia in the North, India in the East, Egypt in the South 17. What four cultural influences blended to form Hellenistic culture? Answer: Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian 18. What are some of the scientific achievements of the Hellenistic period? Answer: Eratosthenes estimated the Earth’s size, hypothesized motions of bodies in the solar system; Euclid organized findings of Greek geometry; Archimedes discovered laws governing simple machines.