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Questions 9-18
9. Why was sea travel important to early Greeks?
Answer: Mountains made travel by land difficult.
10. Why did the Greeks develop myths?
Answer: to explain mysteries of nature and human
behavior and teach cultural values.
11. What were the two most powerful city-states in early
Answer: Athens and Sparta
12. What were the consequences of the Persian Wars?
Answer: City-states formed the Delian League; Athens
became the dominant city-state, a flourishing of
creativity in Athens.
13. What were Pericles’ three goals for Athens?
Answer: strengthen Athenian democracy, maintain and
expand the Athenian empire, glorify Athens.
14. Who were the three renowned philosophers of the
Golden Age?
Answer: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
15. Why was Greece so easily conquered by Macedonia?
Answer: Greek city-states were weakened and divided
after the Peloponnesian War. Philip II had a powerful
army and used brilliant military tactics.
16. What was the full extent of Alexander’s empire after
his death?
Answer: Greece in the West, Macedonia in the North,
India in the East, Egypt in the South
17. What four cultural influences blended to form
Hellenistic culture?
Answer: Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian
18. What are some of the scientific achievements of the
Hellenistic period?
Answer: Eratosthenes estimated the Earth’s size,
hypothesized motions of bodies in the solar system;
Euclid organized findings of Greek geometry;
Archimedes discovered laws governing simple