Download 2 Guided Notes for PPT 7, Hearing and Sight

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Guided Notes for PPT #2 Senses Hearing, Equilibrium, and Sight
Hearing is actually just a response to_____________________________________
Equilibrium is the sense of __________________________________________________________________
Both senses reside in the inner ear within a maze of fluid filled passages and sensory cells.
Sensory cells convert this motion into a pattern of _________________________
How is Sound made??
Sound is any ____________________________________________________________
Air molecules hitting the eardrum cause it to vibrate which generates sound.
Pitch is determined by the frequency (Hertz or cycles/sec, wavelength)of the sound…….High or low
Loudness is the intensity or amplitude of the vibration, recorded in decibels.
Humans have a general range of 20Hz to 20,000Hz
Normal human speech is at about __________________________ which is where human hearing is most accurate.
Humans lose the ability to detect sounds as they age.
How High could you still hear???_________________________
Anatomy of the EAR
Basically 3 sections Outer, Middle and Inner
Outer and middle facilitate the transmission ______________________________
Inner is where______________________________________________________
Outer ear has only basically 2 structures:
Pinna and a tube called the _______________________________________________. They are designed to collect
Middle ear is located in the _______________________________________________________
Structures of middle ear:
Tympanic Membrane (
Separates it from the _______________________________________________
Vibrates freely_______________________________________________
Innervated by ____________________________________________________________________________
And is VERY sensitive to pain!!
Tympanic cavity: contains the _________________________________________ (ear bones).
Eustachia tube (auditory tube)______________________________________________________________________
Equalizes air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
Normally flattened and _______________________________________________________________
Allows ______________________________________________________________________________________
Auditory ossicles (Bones) 3 smallest in your body
Inner Ear:
Actual center __________________________________________
Has semicircular canals:___fluid filled ________________________________________________________
Cochlea is the _______________________________________________
This is connected to the ________________________________________which relays info to the ________________in
the cerebrum.
Physiology of hearing:
In the tympanic space, the ossicles ad their muscles have a protective function, to____________________________
Middle Ear muscles help to coordinate speech with hearing by_____________________________________________
Stimulation of Cochlear hair cells occures by the vibrations of the middle ear bones, as many as ____________________.
Deafness, can be cause by :
Damaged tympanic _________________________________________________________________________________
Otosclerosis is the ____________________________________________________________________________
Can also be caused by nerve damage, Sensorineural deafness:_____________________________________________
Auditory Projection Pathway:
Sensory fibers begin at the bases of the hair cells in the cochlea. Cell bodies form the __________________________
Axons lead away from the cochlea as the ______________________________________________________
This cochlea nerve joins with the ________________________________________________to form the
_____________________________________also known as the _________________________________.
Each ear sends nerve fibers to ________________________________which end in the cochlear nuclei
Neural fibers then rise to the midbrain which helps_____________________________________________________
Neurons then lead to the thalamus to the primary________________________________________________________.
This primary auditory cortex lies on the top of the ____________________________________________ which is the site
the coordination _________________________________________________
The apparatus that hold receptors for equilibrium are the ________________________________________
These ____________________ have 3 semicircular ducts____________________________________________
And 2 chambers that are responsible for ________________________________________________________________
What is static equilibrium?______________________________________________________________
Dynamic equilibrium is the perception of motion or acceleration
Linear acceleration________________________________________________________________
Angular acceleration______________________________________________________________
Sight and Vision
This is richly innervated and vascular.________________
three principal components of the eyeball
– three layers (tunics) that form the wall of the eyeball
– optical component – admits and focuses light
– neural component – the retina and optic nerve
1. Tunic fibrtosa_______________________________
Cornea, still sclera but transparent and clear so that light can be admitted into the eye
2. Tunic Vasculosa ___________________________________________________
Ciliary body___________________________________________________________________________
3. Tunic Interna___________________________________________
Transparent elements that _________________________________________
1. Cornea_________________________________________________________________________
2. Aqueous humor____________________________________________________________________
3. Lens________________________________________________________________________________
Neural Component
Includes the retina and optic nerve
1. Retina_________________________________________________________________________
Attached to the eye________________________________________________________________
Pressed against the rear of__________________________________________________________
Detached retina causes ____________________________________________________________
2. Optic nerve _______transmits signals to the brain
Formation of an Image:
Light passes through the _________________________________________________________
Light energy is converted to Action Potentials in the retina!!
Rod and cone cells are the light absorbing cells.
Rod cells: used for night vision or monochromatic vision
Cone cells: used to capture color and are vision
Bipolar cells _________________________________________________
Ganglion cells_______________________________________________
Generating an Optic Nerve Signal
Rod and cone cells release glutamate when stimulated. This in turn activates bipolar cells of the retina to
release neurotransmitters which in turn stimulate retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve.
Visual Projection Pathway
The two optic nerves combine to form the optic chiasm.
Half the fibers_________________________________________________________
Right cerebral hemisphere sees___________________________________________________________
Each side of the brain sees what is _________________________________________________________
Processing of Visual Information:The Primary Visual Cortex ________________________________________to
the Visual Association areas in the ____________________________________________which process retinal
data from the _________________________________lobes.
Such as object location, __________________________________________________________________
Muscle Control of the Eye
6 muscles attach to the exterior of the eye
Superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles move the eye up,
down, medially & laterally
Superior and inferior oblique turn the “twelve o’clock pole” of each
eye toward or away from the nose
innervated by cranial nerves III, IV and VI