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Narrator: The sense of hearing results from conversion of mechanical energy, in the form of a sound wave, into electrical energy by the structures of the outer, middle, and inner ear. Sound waves from the environment impinge upon the ear canal where they are directed to the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. The tympanic membrane vibrates at the same frequency as the sound wave. The vibration of the tympanic membrane is transmitted to the cochlea by middle ear bones called the malleus, incus, and stapes. These bones serve to reduce the amplitude of motion but increase the force exerted on the oval window. The sound wave is then efficiently transmitted into the paralymph of the cochlea.