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The medial view of the middle ear containing three auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) and two small skeletal muscles (tensor tympani muscle
and stapedius). The manubrium (handle of the malleus) is attached to the back of the tympanic membrane. Its head is attached to the wall of the middle
ear, and its short process is attached to the incus, which in turn articulates with the head of the stapes. The footplate of the stapes is attached by an
annular ligament to the walls of the oval window. Contraction of the tensor tympani muscle pulls the manubrium medially and decreases the vibrations of
the tympanic membrane; contraction of the stapedius muscle pulls the footplate of the stapes out of the oval window. (Reproduced with permission from
Fox SI. Human Physiology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2008.)
Source: Hearing & Equilibrium, Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 25e
Citation: Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 25e; 2016 Available at:
Accessed: April 29, 2017
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