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Transcript
Introduction to Psychology 2e
Chapter 8
#8
1
Tick
Answer
d
Question
All psychology is social because
a) the behaviour and thoughts of individuals are influenced by
others
b) humans are social creatures
c) we become human only through our interaction with others
d) all of the above
2
b
What is meant by the individual-social dualism?
a) psychology has tended to emphasise the social over the
individual realm
b) psychology has artificially separated the individual and social
realms
c) people operate either as individuals or as social beings
d) individuals are largely products of the social
3
a
In social psychology, four levels of explanation were proposed by Doise
to explain people’s actions. These are
a) individual, interpersonal, positional, and ideological
b) cognition, affective processes, conative processes, and
motivation
c) racism, patriarchy, ideology and Westernism
d) biological, individual, group, and ideological
4
c
Choose the correct example:
Individual
level
a) e.g. racism
5
Introduction to Psychology 2e
Lecturer Support Material
c
Interpersonal
level
b) e.g.
patriarchy
Positional
level
c) e.g. white
male privilege
Ideological
level
d) e.g.
cognitions
The three main approaches to social psychology are:
a) individualistic approaches, interpersonal approaches, and
ideological approaches
b) social identity theory, social constructionism, and Gestalt
psychology
c) individualistic approaches, social identity theory, and social
constructionism
d) folk psychology, discourse analysis, and social representations.
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6
a
The fact that many black South Africans are still poorer than white
South Africans, illustrates
a) the legacy of our historical past
b) the influence of Westernisation
c) the influence of modernisation
d) all of the above
7
d
From when can we date the origins of social psychology?
a) Sigmund Freud’s works on group psychology during the 1920’s
b) The study of prejudice and stereotyping after the Holocaust
c) Adorno’s study of the authoritarian personality in 1950
d) Gustav le Bon’s influential book ‘The Crowd’ in the 1890’s
8
b
Social identity theory is associated with
a) Stanley Milgram
b) Henri Tajfel
c) Solomon Asch
d) Serge Moscovici
9
a
Since the 1960’s, American social psychological research has tended to
focus on
a) social cognition
b) social constructionism
c) social identity theory
d) social representations
10
c
Within the ‘mainstream’ approach to social psychology, the ___ is
taken as the primary unit of analysis
a) group
b) society
c) individual
d) interpersonal
11
b
The three sets of processes associated with the individualistic
approach are
a) cognition, emotion, and motivation
b) cognition, affect, and conation
c) intra-personal, interpersonal, and group
d) none of the above
12
a
Mainstream social psychology has tended to focus on empirical
evidence. This means
a) evidence obtained through the physical senses
b) evidence obtained through subjective experience
c) evidence obtained through speculation
d) evidence obtained through discursive analysis
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13
d
According to Allport, an attitude is
a) an invisible, inner process
b) a social negotiation between people
c) evaluative
d) both a and c above
14
a
The most difficult attitude to change would be one that has
a) clear direction, greater strength, and higher centrality
b) clear direction, moderate strength, and higher centrality
c) clear direction, greater strength, and low centrality
d) clear direction, moderate strength, and moderate centrality
15
b
Choose the most correct option regarding the theory of reasoned
action
a) attitudes directly produce the intention to perform a behaviour
b) the intention to perform a behaviour is formed from the
interaction between subjective norms and attitudes
c) cognitions determine one’s intention to perform an action
d) there is no connection between attitudes and behaviour
16
d
A teenage boy’s decision to not use a condom is a function of
a) his negative attitude towards using condoms
b) the fact that his peers do not support the use of condoms
c) his lack of exposure to safe sex messages
d) the combination of his attitude and the internalised norms of his
peer group
17
c
According to the persuasive communications approach, which of the
following factors must be considered in influencing change?
a) the age, race and concentration level of the receivers
b) the celebrity status of the medium
c) the source of the message, the style of the message, and factors
in the receiver
d) the accessibility of the media and the celebrity status of the
medium.
18
a
The three routes to changing attitudes are
a) persuasive communication, cognitive dissonance, and the
contact hypothesis
b) persuasive communication, elaboration likelihood, and the
contact hypothesis
c) persuasive communication, cognitive elaboration, and
elaboration likelihood
d) cognitive dissonance, the contact hypothesis, and elaboration
likelihood
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19
d
Heuristic processing refers to
a) deep processing
b) processing based on peripheral factors
c) taking a short cut in processing information
d) both b and c above
20
b
An advertisement promoting condom use was aired on a night when
there was a television blackout. This is an example of the influence of
___ on affecting change.
a) channel
b) context
c) source of message
d) elaboration
21
a
The introduction of strict anti-smoking laws in an attempt to change
people’s smoking behaviour, is an example of the
a) cognitive dissonance theory
b) contact hypothesis
c) use of the law to affect change
d) use of coercion
22
d
Research has shown that cognitive dissonance is only significant in
affecting change if one’s ___ is involved in the issue.
a) normative beliefs
b) subjective beliefs
c) attitudes
d) overall self-concept
23
d
The problem with the contact hypothesis is that
a) it is difficult to establish contact between different groups
b) certain optimal conditions of contact should be met
c) participants often do not generalise positive attitudes to other
situations
d) both b and c above
24
c
The contact hypothesis was originally proposed by
a) Leon Festinger
b) Floyd Allport
c) Gordon Allport
d) Fishbein and Ajzen
25
b
Research on racialised attitudes in South Africa have found that ___
were the least prejudiced towards black people
a) Afrikaans-speaking whites
b) Jewish whites
c) English-speaking whites
d) Afrikaans-speaking coloureds
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26
a
Research has found that black South Africans have more positive
attitudes towards
a) English-speaking whites
b) Afrikaans-speaking whites
c) Jews
d) None of the above
27
a
The movement to increase pride in black identity was called ____ and
is associated most strongly with _____
a) black consciousness; Steve Biko
b) black pride; Steve Biko
c) black consciousness; Barney Pityana
d) black liberation; Steve Biko
28
c
Studies of racial attitudes amongst adolescents in 1992 and 1996 found
that
a) racialised attitudes had decreased significantly
b) pro-black attitudes had increased
c) racism scores increased amongst whites
d) anti-white attitudes were generally high
29
b
Studies of racial attitudes amongst adolescents in 1992 and 1996 found
that ___ had the most negative anti-white attitudes
a) Afrikaans-speaking coloureds
b) blacks
c) Indians
d) English-speaking coloureds
30
d
A major finding of social psychology is that
a) Individuality disappears in the face of group norms
b) Individual behaviour is completely governed by group and
situational norms
c) Individual behaviour is not affected by group and situational
influences
d) Group and situational influences are much more important in
determining individual behaviour than is usually recognised
31
a
___ is defined as shifting one’s actions to follow a group’s norm(s)
a) conformity
b) social influence
c) intra-group influence
d) obedience to authority
32
b
In which of the following countries would one expect to find a high
conformity rate?
a) Britain
b) Africa
c) USA
d) France
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33
c
Experiments on obedience to authority were conducted by ___
a) Solomon Asch
b) Finchilescu and Dawes
c) Stanley Milgram
d) I.D. MacCrone
34
c
In Asch’s experiments, which of the following situations would be
expected to produce the lowest rates of obedience to authority?
a) the ‘teacher’ and the ‘learner’ were in different rooms
b) the ‘teacher’ was a woman
c) the ‘teacher’ and the ‘learner’ were in the same room
d) the ‘learner’ claimed that he had a heart condition
35
a
In Asch’s experiments, which of the following situations would be
expected to produce the highest rates of obedience?
a) the ‘teacher’ and the ‘learner’ were in separate rooms
b) the ‘teacher’ and the ‘learner’ were in the same room
c) another ‘teacher’ refused to continue with the experiment
d) the ‘teacher’ and the ‘learner’ were of opposite genders
36
d
In the study of minority influence, ___ is an effective behavioural style
a) rigidity
b) dogmatism
c) inconsistency
d) flexibility
37
a
Minority influence refers to
a) the dissent and resistance of minorities to majority influence
b) the influence that the minority exerts over the majority
c) the influence that the majority exerts over the minority
d) the tendency of minorities to be conformist
38
b
Mainstream social psychology has used ___ and ___ to explain
prejudice and stereotyping
a) social cognition; social constructionism
b) social cognition; personality psychology
c) personality psychology; interpersonal psychology
d) personality psychology; group psychology
39
b
According to Allport, why was prejudice a natural capacity of the
mind?
a) individuals are predisposed to see only the negative about others
b) individuals have limited information-processing capacities
c) individuals are naturally intolerant of ambiguity
d) all of the above
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40
c
The ____ was used to measure authoritarianism
a) A-Scale
b) Authoritarianism Questionnaire
c) F-Scale
d) D-Scale
41
d
The personality approach to prejudice has been criticised because
a) the influence of cognitions has been ignored
b) the scales used to measure it are incorrect
c) in-group influence has been ignored
d) prejudice is located exclusively inside the individual
42
a
Social identity theory was developed by
a) Henri Tajfel
b) John Duckitt
c) Adorno
d) Milgram
43
c
The tendency of individuals from group A to regard members of Group
B as more similar to one another, and more different from members of
Group A, is an example of the ____ principle of social identity theory
a) social comparison
b) self-concept
c) categorisation
d) permeability
44
b
According to social identity theory, personal and social identities are
a) constantly negotiated through positioning
b) shifting along a continuum according to salience
c) completely separate entities
d) dependent on whether conformity is present
45
c
The impermeability of group boundaries in South Africa during
apartheid made ____ difficult.
a) self-concept
b) legitimacy
c) social mobility
d) social change
46
d
In societies where upward social mobility is seen as possible, the
boundaries between groups are
a) impermeable
b) fixed
c) non-existent
d) permeable
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47
d
Cognitive alternatives are possible when the group stratification is
regarded as
a) fixed
b) unstable
c) illegitimate
d) both b and c
48
b
The key assumption of social identity theory is
a) individuals strive to be distinct from out-group members
b) individuals strive for a positive self-concept
c) individuals strive for a high group status
d) individuals strive to be distinct from in-group members
49
a
Social change refers to ____ efforts to change the status quo
a) collective
b) individual
c) illegitimate
d) political
50
b
Strikes and protests are an example of the ____ strategy
a) defensive distinctiveness
b) social action
c) social mobility
d) social creativity
51
c
Which of the following strategies is most likely to be used by a person
whose group has a low perceived legitimacy and insecure identity?
a) social competition
b) social change
c) increased discrimination
d) paternalism
52
b
The ‘black is beautiful’ slogan is an example of the use of ___ to effect
change in a status hierarchy
a) social stereotypes
b) social creativity
c) defensive distinctiveness
d) social mobility
53
d
According to Social Identity Theory, which of the following is NOT a
function of stereotypes?
a) cognitive function
b) ideologising collective action
c) positive distinctiveness of group identity
d) a discourse to reinforce oppression
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54
a
Ethnocentrism refers to
a) the tendency to favour one’s own group over others
b) the tendency to be racist
c) the cognitive functions of stereotyping
d) none of the above
55
c
According to Social Identity Theory, why does contact between
individuals of different races, fail to generalise to wider racial
relations?
a) racism is deeply entrenched in every facet of society
b) racist discourses are persistent
c) the dynamics operate only at an individual and interpersonal
level
d) stereotypes persist in the face of contradiction
56
d
According to SIT, contact between __ is most likely to lead to positive
changes in wider racial relations?
a) people of the same age
b) people of the same gender
c) people of the same socio-economic status
d) people who represent and lead groups
57
b
With which of the following theorists is social constructionism NOT
associated?
a) Billig
b) Turner
c) Gergen
d) Shotter
58
b
Social constructionism is opposed to ___ as the only way of knowing
a) language
b) positivism
c) rhetoric
d) structuralism
59
c
In social constructionism, the ‘linguistic turn’ refers to
a) the use of language as a primary means of knowing
b) the focus on linguistics
c) the study of language as constitutive of reality
d) the study of language as reflecting reality
60
c
According to social constructionism, attitudes and drives are
a) separate entities inside the individual
b) rhetorical practices
c) constituents of social practices
d) external to the individual
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61
d
Discourse analysis studies ____ to unravel how language ‘does’ things
a) texts
b) conversations
c) symbolic systems
d) all of the above
62
a
Social constructionism’s anti-essentialism position means that
a) there is no fundamental essence to human experience
b) there is no certain point of view
c) everything is relative
d) our behaviour is determined by our environment
63
b
Rhetoric refers to
a) story-telling
b) arguments intended to persuade
c) a discourse analysis method
d) the construction of our experience
64
d
Shotter’s ‘knowing of a third kind’ refers to
a) intuition
b) the use of discourse analysis to unravel meaning
c) the use of narrative analysis to unravel meaning
d) a shared understanding constituted between people
65
c
According to social constructionism, which is the most accurate
statement with regard to self?
a) the individual and social selves are entirely separate
b) the individual takes precedence over the social in the
construction of self
c) individual and social selves are indivisible
d) the social takes precedence over the individual in the
construction of self
66
a
Social constructionism favours the term ___ to describe the fluidity of
self
a) subjectivity
b) subject
c) object
d) core
67
b
The concept of social roles is associated with
a) cognitive psychology
b) mainstream psychology
c) social constructionism
d) discursive psychology
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68
b
According to social constructionism, gendered selves are constructed
by discourses of
a) racism
b) patriarchy
c) commonality
d) individuality
69
c
Social constructionism uses the term ____ to refer to the way in which
selves are negotiated in interaction with others.
a) ideological subjectivity
b) passive subjectivity
c) positioning
d) negotiating
70
d
According to Levett (1988), young women are positioned as victims in
relation to men because of
a) generational continuity
b) sexist assumptions
c) women’s relative weakness
d) child abuse discourses
71
b
Wood and Foster (1995) found that non-use of condoms was related to
a) ignorance about HIV/AIDS
b) unequal power relations between men and women
c) lack of access to condoms
d) men’s reluctance to take responsibility for sex
72
a
A study by Harris et al (1995) looked at the way in which men talked
about gender. They reported three major ____ strategies which were
used by men to achieve patriarchal positions
a) rhetorical
b) subjective
c) sexist
d) cultural
73
a
In Foster’s (2000) study of apartheid atrocity perpetrators, the way in
which perpetrators constructed their actions as comprehensible, while
victims constructed them as incomprehensible, is referred to as
a) the magnitude gap
b) marginalisation
c) unrealistic evaluation
d) misunderstanding
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74
A study by Shefer & Foster (2001) in the Western Cape found that
there was greater adherence to
a) feminist discourses that resist male power
b) progressive discourses of masculinity
c) traditional discourses of masculinity and femininity
d) discourses of equality
75
c
The social constructionist approach explains racism in terms of
a) intergroup relations
b) personality functioning
c) discourse
d) economic structures
76
d
Dixon et al’s (1997) study found that the white residents of Hout Bay,
when faced with the formation of a black township in their area:
a) used the labels ‘black’ and ‘white’ to construct the ‘other’
b) constructed black people as dangerous and unreasonable
c) constructed black people as an economic threat
d) used an impersonal language of the spatial
77
b
The avoidance of explicitly racial discourses, in favour of using
discourses of economic facts and aesthetics, is an example of
a) rhetoric
b) subtle racism
c) defensiveness
d) liberalism
Introduction to Psychology 2e
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12