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Internal Medicine
Asia: recombinant forms such AE account of the infections in south East Asia while
subtype C is prevalent in India. Subtype B is also seen in Asia.
HIV - 2: Was first identified in West Africa and it is mostly confined to West Africa, however a
number of cases which can be traced to West Africa are found worldwide.
Morphology of the Virus
♦ HIV is Spherical shaped virus. The most important parts of the virus are:ƒ
Its viral envelop has many small spikes
which consists of two important
glycopropteins gp41 and gp120 which play an important role when the virus
attaches to its host cells
The viral capsid ( core ) which contains two single stranded viral RNA and an
important enzyme for the virus called reverse transcriptase enzyme
The reverse transcriptase enzyme plays an important step in the life cycle of the
virus. It converts the single stranded viral RNA into double stranded DNA ( this
process is called reverse transcription )
Characteristics of HIV
HIV infect cells that express CD4 receptor molecules
The CD4 receptors are present on various types of blood cells including
lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, tissue cells (e.g. Dendirtic cells in the
genital tract and ano-rectal region) and glial cells of brain Successful entry of the
virus to a target cell also requires cellular co-receptors
A fusion co-receptor is designated CXCR5 for T-cell tropic stain and CCR4 for
monocyte -macrophage tropic strains