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Transcript
Internal Medicine
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Asia: recombinant forms such AE account of the infections in south East Asia while
subtype C is prevalent in India. Subtype B is also seen in Asia.
HIV - 2: Was first identified in West Africa and it is mostly confined to West Africa, however a
number of cases which can be traced to West Africa are found worldwide.
Morphology of the Virus
♦ HIV is Spherical shaped virus. The most important parts of the virus are:ƒ
Its viral envelop has many small spikes
which consists of two important
glycopropteins gp41 and gp120 which play an important role when the virus
attaches to its host cells
ƒ
The viral capsid ( core ) which contains two single stranded viral RNA and an
important enzyme for the virus called reverse transcriptase enzyme
ƒ
The reverse transcriptase enzyme plays an important step in the life cycle of the
virus. It converts the single stranded viral RNA into double stranded DNA ( this
process is called reverse transcription )
Characteristics of HIV
ƒ
HIV infect cells that express CD4 receptor molecules
ƒ
The CD4 receptors are present on various types of blood cells including
lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, tissue cells (e.g. Dendirtic cells in the
genital tract and ano-rectal region) and glial cells of brain Successful entry of the
virus to a target cell also requires cellular co-receptors
ƒ
A fusion co-receptor is designated CXCR5 for T-cell tropic stain and CCR4 for
monocyte -macrophage tropic strains
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