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Internal Medicine
Any disseminated endemic mycosis (e.g. histoplasmosis, coccidiodomycosis)
Esohagial Candidiasis ( involving esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs )
Recurrent Bacterial pneumonia
Recurrent septicemia
Disseminated atypical mycobacterium
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Lymphoma ( cerebral or B-cell Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma )
Invasive cervical carcinoma
Kaposi’s sarcoma
HIV encephalopathy
Symptomatic HIV associated neuropathy.
Antiretroviral Drugs (ARTs)
ARTs are the corner stone of medical management of HIV infection.
Classes of Antiretroviral Drugs
1) Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ( NRTIs)
Lamivudine (3TC)
Stavudine ( d4t )
Zidovudine (AZT
Abacavir ( ABC)
Didanosine (DDI )
Zalcitabin ( DDC )
Emtricitabine (FTC)
Tenofovir (TDF ),
Mechanism of Action: Structurally these drugs resemble naturally occurring nucleosides and
break the formation of viral DNA by breaking the chain ( chain breakers )
Zidovudine (AZT)
Dosage:300mg PO BID
Side effects: Anemia, Myalgias, bone Marrow Suppression
Lamivudine (3TC):
Dosing: 150mg BID or 300mg QD
Side effects :Headache , occasional nausea
Stavudine (d4T)
Dosing: 40 mg BID for weight > 60 kg , 30 mg BID for weight < 60 kg
Side effects :Peripheral Neuropathy (5-15%) ,Lactic acidosis, Pancreatitis