* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Attitudes Orientations that locate objects of thought on dimensions of judgment. Attributions Inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior. Bystander effect A paradoxical social phenomenon in which people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone. Channel The medium through which a message is sent. Cognitive development Transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving. Collectivism Putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to. Commitment An intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise. Companionate Warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s love own. Conformity The tendency for people to yield to real or imagined social pressure. Defensive attribution The tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way. Discrimination Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group. External attributions Ascribing the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints. Foot-in-theGetting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a door technique larger request later. Fundamental attribution error Observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior. Group Two or more individuals who interact and are interdependent. Group cohesiveness The strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself. Group polarization A phenomenon that occurs when group discussion strengthens a group’s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction. Groupthink A process in which members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision. Illusory correlation A misperception that occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen. Individualism Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships. Ingroup The group that people belong to and identify with. Internal attributions Ascribing the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings. Interpersonal attraction Positive feelings toward another. Intimacy Warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship. Lowball technique Getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before revealing the hidden costs. Matching hypothesis The idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners. Message The information transmitted by a source. Obedience A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority. Outgroup People who are not part of the ingroup. Passionate love A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion. Person perception The process of forming impressions of others. Prejudice A negative attitude held toward members of a group. Receiver The person to whom a message is sent. Reciprocity Liking those who show that they like you. Reciprocity norm The rule that people should pay back in kind what they receive from others. Self-serving bias The tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors. Social loafing A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves. Social psychology The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others. Social roles Widely shared expectations about how people in certain positions are supposed to behave. Social schemas Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people. Source The person who sends a communication. Stereotypes Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.