Chapter 14 Lecture Notes Page
... members of a group
Groupthink-members of a group attempt to conform their opinionsto what each believes
to be the consensus of the group
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment-although many of the participants in the study
dissented verbally, the majority obeyed
Diffusion of Responsibility-dilution or weake ...
causes and effects of social change
... the motivation towards self-improvement drives an individual’s
need to belong
the ultimate goal in life is balance / equilibrium
the individual must meet certain needs to achieve this
Deficit needs – physiological, safety, emotional
failure to meet these needs may result in alienation – di ...
Social Psychology - Rockhurst University
... Studying Social Psychology
• Reference Group: The formal of informal
groups from which individuals derive
attitudes and standards of acceptable and
• Conformity: The tendency of people to adopt
the behavior and opinions presented by other
• Hawthorne Effect: Atten ...
Communities and Cognition Research Debriefing Form Thank you
... to feel like they belong more, they feel less anxiety, are happier, and perform better in school.
Much of the research on feeling a sense of belonging show similar positive effects. Little
attention, though, has been paid to the negative consequences of a sense of belonging. Therefore,
the present r ...
... Cognitive dissonance
• What happens when your actions are
inconsistent with your beliefs?
– Doomsday cults
– Festinger’s boring tasks
... A paradoxical social phenomenon in which people are less likely to provide needed help
when they are in groups than when they are alone.
... A paradoxical social phenomenon in which people are less likely to provide needed help when they
are in groups than when they are alone.
... desire to form and maintain close,
lasting relationships with some other
... Culture influence affiliation desire
• Although we have inborn affiliation desire
tendencies, our culture experiences further
shape and direct these tendencies.
• Geert Hofstede’s (1980) study of 22
countries found a positive relationship
between a culture’s degree of
individualism and its citizen’ ...
5. Youth and education: Nurturing social development When young
... young people is an ongoing concern for parents, teachers, and society at large. Understanding why
and under what conditions young people socially flourish is therefore of great importance.
The general aim of this research cluster is to gain insight in the dynamic interplay between
individuals and th ...
Social Influence Me and My Gang Who or what influences you??
... – We use other people’s behavior as a standard for
judging the appropriateness of our own actions
• We may see that someone is admired for their
behavior so we use that to legitimize our behavior and
even look up to those people even more
Psy 202 – Lecture 14 (11/15/05)
... How do other people* and social situations*
affect individual behavior*, attitudes,
perceptions and motives?
* Ordinary people
* Social variables
* Everyday behavior
Sociology in Pleasantville
... the formation of the state or of organized
society, the prime motive being the desire
for protection, which entails the surrender
of some personal liberties”
Everything will be “Pleasant” if everyone
knows their place
Self – serving bias
... of others to internal causes
Actor – observer bias – in making attributions, the tendency to attribute
the behaviors of others to internal causes while attributing one’s own
behaviors to external causes (situations and circumstances)
Self – serving bias - the tendency to attribute success to interna ...
Human Behavior and the Social Environment
... Members confine themselves to a
relatively narrow range of behaviors.
Power over each other is in the form of
authority and hierarchal control.
Assures compliance with the system’s
goals and adherence to the member’s
... Our interactions within social networks connect us to
the larger society
... (them). Social identity theory states that the ingroup will discriminate against the out-group to
enhance their self-image.
The central hypothesis of social identity theory is
that group members of an in-group will seek to
find negative aspects of an out-group, thus
enhancing their self-image.
CHAPTER 5, SOCIETY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION
... social structure
The organized pattern of social relationships
and social institutions that compose society, is
observable in the established patterns of social
interaction and social institutions.
Belongingness is the human emotional need to be an accepted member of a group. Whether it is family, friends, co-workers, or a sports team, humans have an inherent desire to belong and be an important part of something greater than themselves. This implies a relationship that is greater than simple acquaintance or familiarity. The need to belong is the need to give and receive affection from others.Belonging is a strong and inevitable feeling that exists in human nature and can be the result of one's own choices, or the choices of others. Because not everyone has the same life and interests, not everyone belongs to the same thing or person. Without belonging, one cannot identify oneself as clearly, thus having difficulties communicating with and relating to one's surroundings.Roy Baumeister and Mark Leary argue that belongingness is such a fundamental human motivation that we feel severe consequences of not belonging. If it wasn’t so fundamental, then lack of belonging wouldn’t have such dire consequences on us. This desire is so universal that the need to belong is found across all cultures and different types of people.