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Transcript
RAUSCH – Spring 2017
Study Guide and Potential Essay Questions for Chapter 25 – Metabolism
NOTE: We may not have time to cover all of these this term. Concentrate on questions
involving what we actually covered in lecture.
Some terms
Know the definition and physiological/anatomical significance of the following:
anabolic and catabolic reactions, anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, ATP synthetase,
avenues of heat exchange (radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation), basal
metabolic rate, beta-oxidation (of fatty acids), coenzyme A, direct and indirect
calorimetry, electron transport chain, endergonic and exergonic reactions, FAD/FADH2,
feedforward control, feeding and satiety centers, fever, glycolysis, heat gain and heat
loss mechanisms, heat vs. temperature, hyperthermia, hypothalamic thermostat,
hypothermia, Krebs’ cycle (TCA or citric acid cycle), lactic acid (lactate), metabolic rate,
metabolic water, metabolism, minerals, mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane,
NAD+/NADH + H+, nutrient, oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate-to-acetate
step, reduction, substrate level phosphorylation, thermoneutral zone
Study suggestions and potential essay questions
What is meant by the term substrate level phosphorylation? What is meant by the term
oxidative phosphorylation?
Where in the cell does each of these processes occur?
• electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation)
• glycolysis
• Krebs’ cycle
If glucose is the substrate, what goes in and what comes out of each stage of aerobic
cellular respiration? (See Energy Statement handout for “stages.”) E.g., glucose, 2
ATP and 2 NAD+ enter glycolysis; 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH + H+, and 4 ATP are produced
by glycolytic reactions.
Why must you inhale oxygen to stay alive? I.e., what is oxygen’s role/function in
aerobic cellular respiration?
What is the function of NAD+ and FAD? Why is less ATP produced for each FADH2
than for each NADH in the mitochondrion?
What is the significance of the H+ gradient that exists across the mitochondrial inner
membrane?
What is/are the source(s) of the CO2 that comes out of your mouth when you exhale?
Write a balance chemical formula for the aerobic metabolism of glucose. Assume that
36 moles of ATP are produced for each mole of glucose.
RAUSCH – Spring 2017
List five (5) factors that would increase metabolic rate.
Define the following terms as they relate to heat gain or loss: radiation, convection,
conduction, evaporation.
How is an increased body temperature due to exercise fundamentally different than an
increased body temperature resulting from a fever?
Describe the information conveyed in the graph below.
A. What is meant by the term “thermoneutral zone?”
B. What factors contribute to the increases in oxygen consumption seen when
environmental (ambient) temperature is raised or lowered from the thermoneutral zone?
C. Why does metabolic rate decline at very high or very low environmental
temperatures?
D. Why does body temperature eventually rise or fall as ambient temperature changes?
[NOTE: This is not as difficult as you might first think. You just need to show your
common sense and your ability to read a graph.]
RAUSCH – Spring 2017
Checkpoint questions
Page 938:
1. Define metabolism.
2. Define catabolism.
3. Define anabolism.
Page 947:
5. NADH produced by glycolysis in skeletal muscle fibers leads to the production of two
ATP molecules in the mitochondria, but NADH produced by glycolysis in cardiac muscle
cells leads to the production of three ATP molecules. Why?
6. How would a decrease in the level of cytoplasmic NAD+ affect ATP production in
mitochondria?
Page 968:
20. What effect does peripheral vasoconstriction on a hot day have on an individual’s
body temperature?
21. Why do infants have greater problems with thermoregulation than adults do?