Download GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Climate resilience wikipedia, lookup

Heaven and Earth (book) wikipedia, lookup

Global warming hiatus wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Climate sensitivity wikipedia, lookup

Instrumental temperature record wikipedia, lookup

Climatic Research Unit documents wikipedia, lookup

Climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Global warming controversy wikipedia, lookup

Climate change adaptation wikipedia, lookup

ExxonMobil climate change controversy wikipedia, lookup

General circulation model wikipedia, lookup

2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference wikipedia, lookup

Climate change denial wikipedia, lookup

Economics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

German Climate Action Plan 2050 wikipedia, lookup

Climate engineering wikipedia, lookup

Fred Singer wikipedia, lookup

Climate governance wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbon economy wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Tuvalu wikipedia, lookup

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

Media coverage of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Attribution of recent climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Canada wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on humans wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

Scientific opinion on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in the United States wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on Australia wikipedia, lookup

Climate change, industry and society wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Mitigation of global warming in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Surveys of scientists' views on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Business action on climate change wikipedia, lookup

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
WHAT’s THE SCIENCE
BEHIND CLIMATE CHANGE?
http://previews.123rf.com/images/kozzzlova/kozzzlova1208/kozzzlova120800004/14828123-People-on-the-planet-Stock-Vector-earth-planet-cartoon.jpg
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/NTIiWbEQsuw/maxresdefault.jpg
Climate? OR Weather?
WEATHER- over a short period of time ;
“what’s happening outside today”
Raining? Snowing? Cold? Hot? Humid?
CLIMATE- global average; Patterns/trends over
relatively long periods of time.
VIDEO
Senator James Inhofe (R-OK)
Feb 26 , 2015
Past Chairman of US Senate
ENVIRONMENT and Public
Works Committee
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2568825/Science-academies-explain-global-warming-reality.html
GREENHOUSE EFFECT:
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including
water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous
oxide, trap heat energy keeping Earth’s surface and
lower atmosphere warm
THIS IS A GOOD THING!
It makes life on Earth
possible!
http://previews.123rf.com/images/kozzzlova/kozzzlova1208/kozzzlova120800004/14828123-People-on-the-planet-Stock-Vector-earth-planet-cartoon.jpg
PROBLEM
Greenhouse gases have been increasing
So . . . atmosphere is trapping more heat
and planet is warming up
https://static.skepticalscience.com/pics/WMOGraphs.jpg
http://www.animationplayhouse.com/aahot.gif
WHAT DOES THE SCIENCE SAY?
CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS IN ATMOSPHERE ARE
INCREASING
Current CO2 level in atmosphere: 407 ppm
~ highest in 650,000 years
https://globalclimate.ucr.edu/images/evidence_CO2.jpg
CO2 CONCENTRATION and
TEMPERATURE
http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/files/cc/figures/icecore_records.jpg
https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
What does the science say?
IT’S GETTING WARMER
9 of 10 warmest years on record have occurred since 2000
VIDEO
ARCTIC ICE IS DISAPPEARING
https://climate.nasa.gov/
ANTARCTIC ICE IS DISAPPEARING
VIDEO
VIDEO
http://www.businessinsider.com/antarctica-giant-iceberg-breaking-off-2017-1
January 2017 was third-warmest January on record
https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2550/january-2017-was-third-warmest-january-on-record/
AGW: Anthropogenic Global Warming
“Human caused climate change:
http://blog.ucsusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Pies-Public-Science.jpg
THERE IS NO “CONTROVERSY”
Multiple studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals show
that 97 percent or more of actively publishing climate scientists
agree: Climate-warming trends over the past century are extremely
likely due to human activities.
Depending on exactly how you
measure the expert consensus,
it’s somewhere between 90% and
100% that agree humans are
responsible for climate change, with
most of our studies finding 97%
consensus among
publishing climate scientists.
The greater the climate expertise
among those surveyed, the higher the
consensus on human-caused global
warming.
https://www.skepticalscience.com/global-warming-scientific-consensus-intermediate.htm
THERE IS NO “CONTROVERSY”
Most of the leading scientific organizations worldwide have
issued public statements endorsing this position.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE
"The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human
activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society." (2006)
US NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
"The scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear
to justify taking steps to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere." (2005)
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIES JOINT STATEMENT
"Climate change is real. There will always be uncertainty in understanding a system as
complex as the world’s climate. However there is now strong evidence that significant global
warming is occurring. The evidence comes from direct measurements of rising surface air
temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures and from phenomena such as increases
in average global sea levels, retreating glaciers, and changes to many physical and biological
systems. It is likely that most of the warming in recent decades can be attributed to human
activities (IPCC 2001)." (2005, 11 international science academies)
WHY DO WE NOT LISTEN TO THE
EXPERTS?
I’m not a SCIENTIST . . .
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/50313720817854238/
THIS IS CRAZY!
If you were at the airport and 97% of the
airplane mechanics said “The plane was
unsafe and was going to crash” and 3% said
“ I’m not a mechanic, but it will be fine” . . . .
WOULD YOU GET ON THE PLANE?
https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/b2/58/cc/b258cc8976aafff5b8919409cc828e4d.jpg
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/50313720817521853/
EFFECTS OF INCREASING
CO2 in ATMOSPHERE
and CLIMATE CHANGE ?
POLAR ICE IS MELTING
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/sea-ice-hits-record-lows-at-both-poles/?WT.mc_id=SA_FB_ENGYSUS_NEWS
Sea Ice Hits Record Lows at Both Poles
http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/files/2014/04/Figure3.png
What’s so bad about warming up a little?
http://healthandenergy.com/images/global2.gif
Cartoon from Brookings Register
Coastal flooding
http://www.defendscience.org/graphics/NASA-SLR.gif
Global average sea level up 8 inches since 1880
Predicted rise by 2100 = 2.5 feet to 6.5 feet
depending on:
how quickly land-based glaciers melt
how quickly we cut back on carbon emissions.
A complete meltdown of the Greenland ice sheet,
could push sea level rise
to 23 feet.
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/sea-level-rise/
thttp://www.unhcr.org/en-us/climate-change-and-disasters.html
CLIMATE REFUGEES
Sea level rises for a 4°C warming scenario could submerge
land currently home to 470 to 760 million people.
“This is not a migration as we’ve known it before.”
http://www.claybennett.com/pages/ocean_temps.html
Changes in Gulf Stream
http://zfacts.com/metaPage/lib/Atlantic_conveyor.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina
Increasing ocean
temperatures
= MORE SEVERE
STORMS
http://i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2005/WEATHER/08/25/tropical.storm/story.katrina.915p.jpg
Number of Atlantic hurricanes each year has
doubled over the past century.
Proportion of major hurricanes to less intense
hurricanes has sharply increased in recent years,
http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/gw_hurricanes/fig26.jpg
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070730-hurricane-warming.html
http://www.cactus-art.biz/note-book/Dictionary/aaa_Dictionary_pictures/drought.jpg
Weather
extremes
Heat waves and drought
Brookings Register
http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/impacts/infographic-wildfires-climate-change.html#.WKtyOW8rLIU
http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34
Changing habitats
means
loss of species
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/5031372081
http://www.conchaid.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/florida-keys-coral-reef-loss.png
What’s so bad a little more CO2?
ACIDIFICATION OF OCEANS
Affects coral reefs and shelled sea animals
http://www.biologyjunction.com/clip0051.jpg
http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/coralbleaching-large.jpg
http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2014-04-16-CoralReefEarthDrReeseHalterCORAL
CORAL BLEACHING
Warmer water causes corals to expel the
algae living in their tissues and turn white.
Destroys coral reef ecosystems and
organisms that live there
http://www.apzem.com/Blog/air-pollution-reduce-life-span.png
HEALTH CONCERNS
HOW DO WE FIX THIS?
STOP RELEASING GREENHOUSE
GASES INTO ATMOSPHERE !
PARIS CLIMATE AGREEMENT
!!!!! LANDMARK NEW CLIMATE AGREEMENT !!!!!
• More than 130 countries (including US and China)
signed the landmark agreement to tackle climate
change at a ceremony at UN headquarters on April
22, 2016 (Earth Day!)
• US pledged a 26-28% cut by 2025 compared with
2005 levels.
• It sets a collective goal of keeping global warming
below 2° C compared to pre-industrial times, and to
pursue efforts to limit the temperature rise to
1.5C.
• It requires all countries to submit plans for
climate action and to update them every five
years, though such plans are not legally binding.
Clean Power Plan
United StatesClean Power Plan sets achievable standards to reduce
carbon dioxide emissions by 32 percent from 2005
levels by 2030 and giving states flexibility of how
they will meet these goals .
Feb 2016
Supreme Court moved to temporarily block
implementing the plan to limit greenhouse gas
emissions from power plants.
Decision to come . . .
http://matadornetwork.cachefly.net/bravenewtraveler.com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418-planet.jpg
HERE’S THE THING
Even if you don’t “believe” in
climate change . . .
Even if our politicians refuse to
admit there is a problem . . . .
Even if countries can’t agree
on emission levels …
we should still work to reduce our emissions of
global warming gases BECAUSE . . .
http://www.inkcinct.com.au/Web/CARTOONS/2005/2005-379C--last-fossil-fuel.gif
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE”
make sense anyway!
Fossil fuels are a limited resource…
eventually they will be gone!
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE”
make sense anyway!
http://healthandenergy.com/global_warming_cartoons.htm
Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on
countries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/AXU_8yGrChFsoMxEHENwCXCcNfaWt5xKTeVop_gXC0bNpant1zzXx7k/
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE”
make sense anyway!
Drilling for and transporting fossil fuels has
negative environmental consequences
http://s1.ibtimes.com/sites/www.ibtimes.com/files/styles/embed/public/2014/07/14/oklahoma_chart.jpg
http://i.imgur.com/ZjvIZhH.jpg
THINGS WE DO TO “FIX CLIMATE CHANGE”
make sense anyway!
Innovation and alternative energy technologies for
automobiles and power generation are good for our economy
https://www.iea.org/media/news/2016/news/MTRMRInfographic.png
Pollution from fossil fuels makes people sick.
THINK ABOUT IT
Scientists are RIGHT
about man-made
Climate change
Scientists are
WRONG about man-made
Climate change
WE KEEP DOING
WHAT WE ARE
DOINGNOTHING!
Environmental
Disaster
Consequences
too awful to
think about
Still have other problems
associated with fossil fuel
use: pollution/acid rain/
dependence on our
enemies/health
consequences
WE WORK TO
GET OFF FOSSIL
FUELS
CHANGES HELP
Solves other problems
TURN CLIMATE
associated with
CHANGE AROUND
fossil fuel use
+ solve
other problems
caused by fossil fuel
REALLY
BAD
BAD
BEST! GOOD!
http://www.climateactionreserve.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/climatesummit.jpg
THE SOLUTIONS MUST COME FROM
AVERAGE CITIZENS . . . LIKE US!
OUR LEADERS WON’T
CAN’T FIX THIS
WE CAN’T COUNT ON OUR LEADERS to FIX THIS
http://e360.yale.edu/images/features/stahl_0401_energy_policy.jpg
http://cdn.skim.gs/images/dws0o9mn3yft7sifgrz7/DonaldTrump_3
Our President is the ONLY world leader who
does NOT accept climate science as REAL!
114th Congress
Jan 2015
Republican party is only political party in the
WORLD that includes DENIAL of
CLIMATE CHANGE as part of its platform
https://cdn-images-1.medium.com/max/624/0*m34Q_EYlCc812YY5.png
http://www.ecowatch.com/pruitt-confirmed-epa-2268448228.html
Head of EPA does not believe in Climate change.
SCOTT PRUITT
A BILL HAS BEEN INTRODUCED TO ELIMINATE THE
EPA – January 1, 2018
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/NTIiWbEQsuw/maxresdefault.jpg
VIDEO
JAMES INHOFE
WAS Chairman:
US Senate Committee
on Environment and Public Works
NEW appointment to:
US Senate Committee on Commerce,
SCIENCE, and Transportation
NEW CHAIR of US SENATE COMMITTEE ON
ENVIRONMENT and PUBLIC WORKS
John Barrasso
He has voted against nearly every pro-planet bill
since joining the Senate in 2007
NEW Head of Department of Interior
Ryan Zinke (R-Montana)
AS A SENATOR
• championed expanded oil and gas development on
public lands,
• moved to exempt agribusiness from ESA regulations.
• led efforts on the federal level to take away
protections for some endangers species
• voted to block efforts that would have limited the
black market ivory trade.
COMPANIES, CITIES, STATES, COUNTRIES are
EMBRACING ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
11 countries are shifting
to renewable energy
Massachusetts & California have pledged to
be 100% renewable energy by 2045
http://Sweden plans to use heat from data
center computers to heat homes
1st ZERO NET city in California
Texas GM SUV plant commits to being
100% wind powered by 2018
THERE IS GOOD NEWS!
RENEWABLE ENERGY IS BOOMING
Solar energy employs more people than oil, coal
& gas combined
THERE IS GOOD NEWS!
INVENTION & INNOVATION
Solar energy employs more people
than oil, coal & gas combined
OCEAN TRASH
COLLECTOR
Worlds-first-solar-road-is-producing
-more-energy-than-expected-
SOLAR COLLECTOR
THERE IS GOOD NEWS!
PEOPLE ARE PROTESTING
March for Science
Earth Day April 22, 2017
DAPL Protest
• Students
• Climate lawsuit video
http://i2.cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/160309202302-oregon-kids-lawsuit-climate-exlarge-169.jpg
htts://futurism.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/neil-degrasse-tyson-quote.jpg
video
http://www.eslcaribbean.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/obama-meme.png
https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/3d/b4/9a/3db49a1ca81528e01af7101887429296.jpg
QUOTES
VIDEO
Trump Environmental changes
Has APPOINTED CLIMATE DENIERS to key
Environmental Positions
• Scott Pruitt -Head of EPA
Does not believe climate change is real
Urging backing out of 2016 Paris agreement
• John Barrasso- CHAIRMAN US SENATE
COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT and PUBLIC
WORKS
• Rex Tillerson- Secretary of State
Former Chief Executive of Exxon Mobil
Exxon Has a $500 Billion oil deal with Russia that is
on hold; Wants sanctions on Russia lifted
Trump Environmental changes
ALREADY DONE
• Signed an executive order at EPA headquarters to reverse most of
former President Barack Obama's climate regulatory initiatives
• Approved completing construction of Keystone XL & DAPL pipelines
• Removed mention of carbon pollution as a cause of climate change
and links to some climate data from EPA website
• EPA and Energy Department ‘s international climate office were
ordered NOT to use the phrases "climate change," "emissions
reduction" or "Paris Agreement" in written memos, briefings or other
written communication
• Rejected ban on chlorpyrifos, crop pesticide linked to nervous
system, respiratory, and cardiovascular damage in humans
Trump Environmental changes
ALREADY DONE
•
Pushing reliance of fossil fuels, especially COAL
• Promised to revive the struggling coal industry and bring back
thousands of lost mining jobs in rural America.
• Lifted a moratorium on federal coal leases to allow coal mining on
public lands
• Ended Stream Protection Rule, a regulation to protect waterways
from coal mining waste
• overturned ban on using lead ammunition on wildlife refuges, meant
to help prevent plants and animals from being poisoned by lead left
on the ground or in the water.
Trump Environmental changes
WORKING ON
• Threatening to pull out of 2015 International Paris Agreement on
Climate change
• Bill in Congress = As of January 1, 2018 EPA will not exist
• Changing Endangered species Act to allow trophy hunting of
hibernating bears
• reviewing all national monument designations on federal public land
since 1996 that are 100,000 acres or more in size
Bears Ears National Monument in Utah
Gold Butte National Monument in Nevada
• Open public lands to coal and oil drilling
• Undo a methane rule for natural gas drilling operations on public land
Trump Environmental changes
NEW BUDGET PROPOSALS
• BUILD THE WALL
•
Cut EPA’s budget by more than 31 percent ($2.5 billion) laying off 25% of employees and
eliminating nearly 60 programs
•
eliminating the EPA's Climate Protection Program, including 14 voluntary partnerships with industry
that were aimed at cutting energy use and greenhouse gases
•
Eliminate Energy Star labeling program, aimed at providing consumers and businesses with
information on the energy costs of appliances they purchase.
•
Eliminate Natural Gas Star partnership to reduce methane emissions
GreenChill program to reduce use of climate-harming gases in refrigeration
•
Eliminate Responsible Appliance Disposal Program
•
Cut $44 million or 87 percent of air, climate and energy research from the Office of Research and
Development, including all the research in coordination with the government-wide U.S. Global
Change Research Program.
•
eliminate $48 million in funding for the federal vehicle fuels standards and certification program,
which tests fuel efficiency claims by the auto industry.
• Cut $44 million or 87 percent of air, climate and energy research from the
Office of Research and Development, including all the research in
coordination with the government-wide U.S. Global Change Research
Program.
• eliminate $48 million in funding for the federal vehicle fuels standards and
certification program, which tests fuel efficiency claims by the auto industry.
Changes in EPA website
Trump Environmental changes
EXECUTIVE ORDERS/SIGNED LEGISLATION
approved two major oil pipelines
Including Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL)
nullified regulation prohibiting surface-mining operations
from dumping waste in nearby waterways
rewriting rules curbing carbon emissions
Lifted moratorium on federal coal leases
Removed mandate that federal officials consider climate
change impacts when making decisions.
Trump Environmental changes
EXECUTIVE ORDERS/SIGNED LEGISLATION
rolled back other limits on extraction and burning of fossil fuels
eliminated a system that would have made energy companies pay
more in federal royalties.
EPA will begin rewriting the 2015 regulation that limits greenhousegas emissions from existing electric utilities.
Interior Department’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to lifts a
moratorium on federal coal leasing
Revamp a 2015 Waters of the United States rule, that
gives the federal government authority over not only major
water bodies but also the wetlands, rivers and streams that
feed into them.
•
•
•
•
•
A 2016 Obama memorandum identifying climate change as a national security issue, and directing the Pentagon
and other agencies to "ensure that climate change-related impacts are fully considered in the development of
national security doctrine, policies, and plans."
2. A 2015 Obama executive order requiring agencies to take steps to reduce their energy consumption fossil fuels,
with a goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases produced by the federal government.
3. A 2013 Obama executive order directing federal agencies to prepare for and mitigate the effects of climate
change, including "an increase in prolonged periods of excessively high temperatures, more heavy downpours, an
increase in wildfires, more severe droughts, permafrost thawing, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise."
4. The Clean Power Plan, an ambitious rule that attempted to set a national limit on carbon emissions from existing
power plants. That rule has already been temporarily held up by the Supreme Court. If not already struck down by
the courts, the Environmental Protection Agency would have to go through a new rulemaking process to seek
comments on any new rule dismantling the Obama policy.
5. The new plant rule, another component of the Clean Power Plan that addresses new power plants. It, too, would
be subject to a new rulemaking process.
•
•
•
•
•
6. The consideration of the social cost of greenhouse gases and climate change in conducting
environmental impact assessments, expanding the scope of the National Environmental Policy Act. That
policy change came in a guidance document from the White House Council on Environmental Quality last
August, and can be immediately rescinded.
7. The moratorium on coal mining on federal and tribal lands. This change doesn't require a new
regulation and can be implemented immediately.
8. A 2016 regulation from the EPA limiting methane emissions from the oil and gas industry. Like all final
regulations, the Trump administration would have to start the regulatory process from the beginning in
order to rescind the rule.
9. A similar rule from the Bureau of Land Management limiting "venting, flaring and leaking" on oil and gas
wells on federal lands, which would also be reviewed for possible repeal.
10. The BLM's hydraulic fracturing rule, which tightened standards on gas well construction, governed the
disposal of fracking waste and required disclosure on the fracking chemicals used. That rule has also been
held up in court, but would require a new rulemaking process to formally take off the books.
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/50313720817534278/
https://cleantechnica.com/files/2016/02/david-subsidies.jpg
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/50313720817508064/
FEDERAL
SENATOR
John Thune
Chairman
Senate Committee on
commerce,
SCIENCE, and Transportation
SENATOR
Mike Rounds
Member of Senate
Committee on
Environment and
Public Works
Chairman of
Subcommittee on
Superfund, Waste
Management and
Regulatory Oversight.
REPRESENTATIVE
Kristi Noem
Member of
Senate Ways and
Means
Committee $$$$
STATE
SENATOR
Larry Tidemann
REPRESENTATIVE
Spence Hawley
REPRESENTATIVE
Tim Reed
IT’S UP TO YOU, ME, ALL OF US!
YOUR GENERATION IS THE KEY
http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/07/01/chapter-2-climate-change-and-energy-issues/
STANDING ROCK- DAPL protest still going on now
1/24/17 Trump signs executive order expediting
approval of Keystone XL and DAPL pipelines
http://thefreethoughtproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/dapl-
http://www.cnn.com/2017/01/24/us/dapl-keystone-pipeline-environment-protesters-trump-order/
http://legal-planet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/keystone_pipeline_route_.jpg
http://www.foreffectivegov.org/blog/map-displays-five-years-oil-pipeline-spills
According to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, these spills and
ruptures released over 7 million gallons of crude
Current Keystone pipeline has had 35 spills since it opened in 2000
One of the largest spills happened in North Dakota in 2013 when lightning struck a pipeline,
which leaked over 840,000 gallons of crude onto a wheat field.
JAN 23, 2017 Oil spill in Canada ~53,000 gallons
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-canadapipeline-leak-idUSKBN1572UJ
Jan 24, 2017 Oil spill in Iowa
http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworl
d/midwest/ct-iowa-pipeline-spill-20170125story.html
April 2016 – Keystone leaks 17,000 in SD
http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2016-0408/keystone-pipeline-leak-worse-than-thought
TIMELINE OF EARTH’s AVERAGE TEMP