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29.1 Elements of Behavior
Behavior and Evolution
For Questions 1–5, write True if the statement is true. If the statement is false, change
the underlined word or words to make the statement true.
1. An adaptation is the way an animal responds to a stimulus in its
2. An animal’s nervous system makes behaviors possible.
3. Certain behaviors are influenced by genes and can therefore be
4. If a behavior decreases fitness, it may spread in a population.
5. Adaptive behaviors can play a role in the survival of a species.
6. How are behaviors affected by natural selection?
Innate Behavior
7. Does learning play a role in innate behavior? Explain your answer.
8. Give three examples of innate behaviors.
Learned Behavior
9. What is learning? Why is it important for survival?
10. Complete the graphic organizer to summarize the four types of learning.
Four types of
learning are
Insight learning
Definition: The
use of a reward
or punishment
to teach an
animal to
behave in a
certain way
Example: Birds
stop responding
to passing cars.
Shore ragworm
responding to
11. In Pavlov’s experiment, a dog produced salivation in reaction to a bell associated with
food. Which type of learning does this describe? Explain your answer.
12. What is a “Skinner box”? Explain how it is used in learning.
Complex Behavior
For Questions 13–17, write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left.
13. Birds that are born recognizing the songs of their own species are exhibiting
A. innate behavior.
C. operant conditioning.
B. habituation.
D. insight learning.
14. Young birds following their mother is an example of
A. imprinting.
C. operant conditioning.
B. classical conditioning.
D. habituation.
15. What do newly hatched salmon imprint on?
A. Sounds of the stream where they hatched
B. Sights of the stream where they hatched
C. Odors of the stream where they hatched
D. Feel of the stream where they hatched
16. Imprinting is considered a complex behavior because
A. it is adaptive.
B. it is instinctual.
C. it combines classical conditional and instinct.
D. it combines innate behavior with learning.
17. Once imprinting has occurred, the behavior becomes
A. complex.
B. fixed.
C. conditioned.
D. innate.
Apply the Big idea
18. Lloyd has two goldfish in a bowl he keeps on his desk. Every morning when he arrives at
work, he turns on his office lights. The instant the lights come on, the fish rise to the
surface of the water and move their mouths. Lloyd always feeds them before he begins
work. What kind of behavior are the fish exhibiting before Lloyd drops food into the
water? How is this type of behavior adaptive? Explain.