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Chapter 7: Learning LEARNING: a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience. We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: learning that two events occur together Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli—then to anticipate events Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its consequence Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov---Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Pavlov’s Classic Experiment—dogs and salivation Classical Conditioning---kind of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that naturally brings about the response Neutral Stimulus: before conditioning, a stimulus that the does not naturally bring about a response. Dogs—light or tone Unconditioned Stimulus: UCS stimulus that naturally and automatically brings about a response, without having been learned. Smell of food Unconditioned Response: UCR unlearned, natural response to the unconditioned stimulus. (needs no training )e.g. salivation at the smell of food Involuntary response or reaction Conditioned Stimulus: CS a once neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a CR after it has been paired with an unconditional stimulus. The event that takes on new meaning through conditioning. Dogs—light or tone For the most rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented: about one-half-second before the US Conditioned Response: CR learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus The new behavior that is acquired through learning. Salivation at sight of light Acquisition--initial stage in classical conditioning. Where organisim associates a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response strengthening of a reinforced response Extinction--diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR In Pavlov's studies of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Cognitive processes Pavlov legacy Applications of classical conditioning Classical conditioning may play a role in Emotional problems The body’s immune response Helping drug addicts OPERANT CONDITIONING - also called instrumental conditioning based on the consequences of an organism’s behavior. Behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and diminished if followed by punishment. Edward Thorndike---later B. F. Skinner-- occurs when people or animals learn by the consequences of their responses. Consequences consist of reinforcement or punishment. Law of Effect Thorndike’s principle ---behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Responses that are satisfying are more likely to be repeated, and those that are not satisfying are less likely to be repeated Operant Behavior operates (acts) on environment; produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus B.F. Skinner elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcer: any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Reinforcement is anything that is likely to cause and increase in the response. Positive reinforcement occurs when something is added to increase the response rates. Negative reinforcement--occurs when something is removed in order to increase the response rate. different from punishment Punishment is anything that is likely to cause a decrease in the response. Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus, i.e., satisfies a biological need (food, water, sex) Conditioned Reinforcer or secondary reinforcer: reinforcers that acquire positive value through experiences (money, smiles, grades) Conditioned or Learned reinforcers gain power through its association with primary reinforcer Primary reinforcers satisfy an unlearned biological need and secondary reinforcers have learned value. Example of reinforcements: Presenting a positive stimulus after a response Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response Being told you have done a good job Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. Two kinds of punishment Positive punishment occurs when something is given to decrease the response rate. Negative punishment consists of removing something to decrease the response rate. (think in mathematical terms – positive (add) and negative (take away). Disadvantages to using punishment: Often ineffective—if not delivered right away Use of physical punishment: teach that aggression is OK Begin to fear the “punisher” Physical punishment given by angry person who may be more likely to lose control Reduces self esteem of recipient Does not convey info about what is appropriate behavior To be effective: Needs to be accompanied by specific info about behavior being punished; along with specific suggestions concerning more desirable behaviors Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement, illustrating the importance of cognitive processes in operant conditioning. Cognitive Map mental representation of environment; the layout of one’s environment Example : After discovering that her usual route home was closed due to road repairs, Sharetta used her knowledge of the city and sense of direction to find an alternate route. Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but not demonstrated until reinforcement is provided The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of: latent learning Cognitive-Social learning theory: The study of the thought processes that underlie learning Observational Learning Learning by observing and imitating others' behaviors , through observing the behavior of another person called a model Alfred Bandura we look and we learn Bobo doll: This experiment served to illustrate the importance of observational learning--preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. Modeling: process of observing and imitating a specific behavior model: A person serving as an example to an observer; if a model’s behavior is rewarded, the observer may imitate that behavior After watching coverage of the Olympics on television recently, Lynn and Susan have been staging their own “winter games” Most likely to imitate the behavior of models if observe that their actions are followed by reinforcement In promoting observational learning, the most effective models are those that we perceive as similar to ourselves respected and admired successful Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior Television and Observational Learning: does watching TV have any effect on behavior?