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AP Psychology Syllabus
Purpose of the Course
The purpose of the Advanced Placement course in Psychology is to introduce students to
the systematic and scientific study of behavior and mental processes of human beings and
animals. Students are exposed to the psychological facts, principles, and phenomena
associated with the major subfields within psychology. They also learn about the methods
psychologists use in their science and practice. (Taken from the Advanced Placement
Course Description in Psychology by the College Board)
Course Objectives
1. Students will prepare to do acceptable work on the Advanced Placement Examination
in Psychology.
2. Students will study the major core concepts and theories of psychology. They will be
able to define key
terms and use these terms in their everyday vocabulary.
3. Students will learn the basic skills of psychological research. They will be able to
devise simple research
projects, interpret and generalize from results and evaluate the validity of research
4. Students will be able to apply psychological concepts to their own lives. They should
be able to recognize
psychological principles when they are encountered in everyday situations.
5. Students will develop critical thinking skills. They will become aware of the danger of
blindly accepting
or rejecting any psychological theory without careful, objective evaluation.
6. Students will build their reading, writing, and discussion skills.
7. Students will learn about psychology as a profession, and become aware of the
educational requirements
which must be met to pursue such careers. They will learn about the ethical standards
governing the work
of psychologists.
Course Textbook
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Psyk-Trek Multimedia Program
Psyk-Trek 2.0 A multimedia introduction to psychology by Weiten, Wayne. (2003).
ISBN: 0534275133
Note: This program in used with a wireless computer labtop lab brought into the
classroom as needed or
presented in class with a LCD projector. For more information on the Psyk-Trek program
go to
Unit Overview
Semester I:
Methods and Approaches Unit
Biological Influence on Behavior Unit
Sensation Unit
Perception Unit
States of Consciousness Unit
Cumulative Test #1
Learning Unit
Memory Unit
Cognition Unit
Intelligence Unit
Developmental Psychology Unit
Cumulative Test #2
Semester Final Exam
Semester II:
Personality Unit
Motivation Unit
Emotions and Stress Unit
Abnormal Psychology Unit
Treatment of Abnormal Unit
Cumulative Test #3
Social Psychology Unit
AP Psychology Exam Preparation
Methods and Approaches Unit
Unit Length: 8-10 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define psychology.
2. Explain the APA divisions of psychology.
3. Summarize the behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive, physiological, and
approaches to psychology.
4. Explain naturalistic observation, directed observation and introspection.
5. Describe a case study
6. Explain the concepts of sampling including population, representative sample, biased
random sample and stratified sample.
7. Explain the interview process.
8. Explain psychological tests and measurements.
9. Define and give examples of the scientific method.
10. Explain and give examples of the various parts of an experiment including:
hypothesis, independent
variable, dependent variable, control group, experimental group, and operational
11. Explain and give examples of subject relevant confounding variables including
random sampling,
Hawthorne effect, and single blind experiments.
12. Explain and give examples of situation relevant confounding variables including
biased, double blind experiments, and placebos.
13. Summarize ethical guidelines for human and animal research.
14. Explain and be able to calculate measures of central tendency.
15. Explain and be able to calculate measures of variability.
16. Describe various forms of distribution including normal, positively skewed and
negatively skewed.
17. Explain correlation including strength and types of correlations.
18. Explain validity.
19. Explain reliability.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Psychology
A. Definition of Psychology
B. Schools of Psychology
C. Approaches to (Schools of) Psychology
1. Behavioral/Skinnerian
2. Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic/Freudian
3. Humanist
4. Cognitive
5. Medical/Biopsychology/Physiological
6. Evolutionary/Darwinian
II. Research Methods
A. Observation (naturalistic, directed, introspection)
B. Case Study
C. Survey/Questionnaires
1. Population
2. Representative Sample
3. Biased Sample
4. Random Sample (assignment)
5. Stratified Sample
D. Interviews
E. Tests and Measurements
F. Experimental (Scientific) Method
1. Hypothesis
2. Independent variable (IV) vs. Dependent variable (DV)
3. Experimental problems and solutions
a. Control vs the experimental group
b. Operational Definition
c. Subject Relevant Confounding Variables
(1) Random Sampling of subjects
(2) Hawthorne Effect
(3) Single Blind Experiment
d. Situation Relevant Confounding Variables
(1) Experimenter Biased
(2) Double blind Experiment
(3) Placebo
4. Ethical Guidelines
a. Human Research
(1) Informed Consent
(2) Deception
(3) Coercion
(4) Anonymity
(5) Risk
(6) Debriefing procedures
b. Animal Research
(1) Clear Scientific Purpose
(2) Humane Care
(3) Legally Acquired
(4) Least amount of Suffering possible
III. Introduction to Psychological Statistics
A. Measures of Central Tendency
1. Mean (arithmetic average)
2. Median
3. Mode (bimodal)
B. Measures of Variability
1. Range
2. Standard Deviation
C. Normal Curve/Distribution
1. Normal distribution
2. Skewed distribution
a. Positively skewed distribution
b. Negatively skewed distribution
IV. Miscellaneous Psychological Statistics
A. Correlation
1. Definition
a. Strength of the correlation
b. Type of correlation
(1) positive
(2) negative
2. Illusory Correlation
B. Probability
C. Reliability
D. Validity
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Stranger Paper (see below for details)
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 1: History & Methods
*1a Psychology’s timeline
1b The experimental method
1c Statistics: Central tendency and variability
*1d Statistics: Correlation
1e How to do library research
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Prologue: The Story of Psychology (pg. 1-17)
Psychology’s Roots
Prescientific Psychology
Psychological Science is Born
Psychological Science Develops
Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Big Debate
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Psychology’s Subfields
Close-Up: Your Study of Psychology
Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science (p. 19-51)
The Need for Psychological Science
The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense
The Scientific Attitude
The Scientific Method
The Case Study
The Survey
Naturalistic Observation
Correlation and Causation
Illusory Correlations
Perceiving Order in Random Events
Exploring Cause and Effect
Evaluating Therapies
Independent and Dependent Variables
Statistical Reasoning
Describing Data
Making Inferences
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology
Chapter 3: Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity (p. 107-113)
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature
Natural Selection
An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality
Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Prologue Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1 Define psychology.
2. Trace psychology’s prescientific roots, from early understandings of mind and body to
beginnings of modern science.
3. Explain how the early psychologists sought to understand the mind’s structure and
and identify some of the leading psychologists who worked in these areas.
4. Describe the evolution of psychology from the 1920s through today.
5. Summarize the nature-nurture debate in psychology, and describe the principle of
6. Identify the three main levels of analysis in the biopsychosocial approach, and explain
psychology’s varied perspectives are complementary.
7. Identify some of psychology’s subfields, and explain the difference between clinical
psychology and psychiatry.
8. State five effective study techniques.
Chapter 1 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Describe hindsight bias, and explain how it can make research findings seem like mere
common sense.
2. Describe how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments.
3. Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking.
4. Describe how psychological theories guide scientific research.
5. Identify an advantage and a disadvantage of using case studies to study behavior and
6. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys to study behavior and
processes, and explain the importance of wording effects and random sampling.
7. Identify an advantage and a disadvantage of using naturalistic observation to study
and mental processes.
8. Describe positive and negative correlations, and explain how correlational measures
can aid the
process of prediction.
9. Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect
10. Describe how people form illusory correlations.
11. Explain the human tendency to perceive order in random sequences.
12. Explain how experiments help researchers isolate cause and effect.
13. Explain why the double-blind procedure and random assignment build confidence in
14. Explain the difference between an independent and a dependent variable.
15. Explain the importance of statistical principles, and give an example of their use in
16. Explain how bar graphs can misrepresent data.
17. Describe the three measures of central tendency, and tell which is most affected by
18. Describe two measures of variation.
19. Identify three principles for making generalizations from samples.
20. Explain how psychologists decide whether differences are meaningful.
21. Explain the value of simplified laboratory conditions in discovering general principles
22. Discuss whether psychological research can be generalized.
23. Explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation
with both
animals and humans.
24. Describe how personal values can influence psychologists’ research and its
application, and
discuss psychology’s potential to manipulate people.
Chapter 3 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
10. Describe the area of psychology that interests evolutionary psychologists.
11. State the principle of natural selection, and point out some possible effects of natural
in the development of human characteristics.
12. Identify some gender differences in sexuality.
13. Describe evolutionary explanations for gender differences in sexuality.
14. Summarize the criticisms of evolutionary explanations of human behaviors, and
describe the
evolutionary psychologists’ responses to these criticisms.
15. Describe some of the conditions that can affect development before birth.
16. Describe how experience can modify the brain.
17. Explain why we should be careful in attributing children’s successes and failures to
parents’ influence.
18. Evaluate the importance of peer influence on development.
Biological Influences on Behavior Unit
Unit Length: 9-11 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define a neuron.
2. Explain the various parts of a neuron including dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, axon
terminal, synapse,
cell body, and nucleus.
3. Summarize the all or nothing law.
4. Explain the workings of neurotransmitters.
5. Describe the elements of synaptic transmission.
6. Outline the human nervous systems including the central nervous system, peripheral
nervous system,
somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, and
nervous system.
7. Identify and explain the parts of the brain including, hindbrain, midbrain, limbic
system, forebrain, and
pituitary gland.
8. Summarize the methods of studying the brain including accidents, lesions, EEG, CAT
scan, MRI, PET
scans and functional MRIs.
9. Define glands.
10. Explain exocrine and endocrine glands.
11. Explain the many glands including pituitary, adrenal, gonads, thyroid, pancreatic and
parathyroid glands.
12. Summarize the effects of heredity on human characteristics including chromosomes,
dominant and
recessive traits, and genotype vs. phenotypes.
Class Notes:
I. Nervous System
A. Neuron
1. Definition of a neuron
2. Parts of the Neuron
a. Dendrite
b. Axon
c. Myelin sheath
d. Axon terminal (terminal buttons)
e. Synapse
f. Cell Body (soma)
(1) Nucleus
3. Neuron Activity
a. All or Nothing Law (threshold of excitement)
b. Neurotransmitters
c. Synaptic Transmission
(1) synthesis - release - binding - inactivation - reuptake
B. Nervous Systems
1. Central Nervous System (CNS)
a. Brain and spinal cord
2. Peripheral Nervous System
a. Somatic Nervous System
(1) afferent nerves fibers (to CNS)
(2) efferent nerves fibers (away from CNS)
b. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
(1) Sympathetic system vs. Parasympathetic system
II. The Brain
A. Hindbrain (medulla, cerebellum, pons and top of spinal cord)
B. Midbrain (reticular activating system)
C. Pituitary Gland
D. Limbic System
E. Forebrain
1. Hypothalamus
2. Thalamus
3. Cerebrum (Cerebral cortex)
4. Corpus Callosum
a. Split Brain Research
F. Methods of Studying the Brain
1. Accidents
2. Lesions
3. EEG (electroencephalograph)
4. Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT scan)
5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
7. Functional MRI (fMRI)
III. The Glands
A. Definition of Glands
B. Types of Glands
1. Exocrine (Duct) Glands vs. Endocrine Glands
C. Endocrine System
1. Pituitary Gland (Master Gland)
2. Adrenal Gland
3. Gonads (Ovaries and Testes)
4. Thyroid
5. Pancreatic Gland
6. Parathyroid
IV. Heredity
A. Chromosomes
B. Dominant versus Recessive characteristics
C. Genotype vs. Phenotype
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Brain Project (see below for details)
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
2a The neuron and the neural impulse
*2b Synaptic transmission
2c Looking inside the brain: Research methods
2d The hindbrain and the midbrain
2e The forebrain: Subcortical structures
2f The cerebral cortex
*2g Right brain/Left brain
Simulation 2 Hemispheric specialization
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior (p. 53-94)
Neural Communication
How Neurons Communicate
How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
The Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
The Endocrine System
The Brain
The Tools of Discovery
Older Brain Structures
The Cerebral Cortex
Our Divided Brain
Chapter 3: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity (p. 95-107)
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences
Genes: Our Codes for Life
Twin Studies
Adoption Studies
Temperament Studies
Gene-Environment Interaction
The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 2 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology, and describe the illfated
phrenology theory.
2. Explain how viewing each person as a biopsychosocial system helps us understand
behavior, and discuss why researchers study other animals in search of clues to human
3. Describe the parts of a neuron, and explain how its impulses are generated.
4. Describe how nerve cells communicate.
5. Explain how neurotransmitters affect behavior, and outline the effects of acetylcholine
and the
6. Explain how drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission, and describe the
effects of agonists and antagonists.
7. Describe the nervous system’s two major divisions, and identify the three types of
neurons that
transmit information through the system.
8. Identify the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system, and describe their
9. Contrast the simplicity of the reflex pathways with the complexity of neural networks.
10. Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system and its interaction with the
11. Describe several techniques for studying the brain.
12. Describe the components of the brainstem, and summarize the functions of the
thalamus, and cerebellum.
13. Describe the structures and functions of the limbic system, and explain how one of
these structures
controls the pituitary gland.
14. Define cerebral cortex, and explain its importance to the human brain.
15. Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.
16. Summarize some of the findings on the functions of the motor cortex and the sensory
cortex, and
discuss the importance of the association areas.
17. Describe the five brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence aloud.
18. Discuss the brain’s plasticity following injury or illness.
19. Describe split-brain research, and explain how it helps us understand the functions of
our left and
right hemispheres.
20. Discuss the relationships among brain organization, handedness, and mortality.
Chapter 3 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Give examples of differences and similarities within the human family.
2. Describe the types of questions that interest behavior geneticists.
3. Define chromosome, DNA, gene, and genome, and describe their relationships.
4. Explain how identical and fraternal twins differ, and cite ways that behavior geneticists
use twin
studies to understand the effects of environment and heredity.
5. Cite ways that behavior geneticists use adoption studies to understand the effects of
and heredity.
6. Discuss how the relative stability of our temperament illustrates the influence of
heredity on
7. Discuss heritability’s application to individuals and groups, and explain what we mean
when we
say genes are self-regulating.
8. Give an example of a genetically influenced trait that can evoke responses in others,
and give
another example of an environment that can trigger gene activity.
9. Identify the potential promise and perils of molecular genetics research.
Sensation Unit
Unit Length: 6-8 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define stimulus, sensation, perception, and transduction.
2. Explain thresholds including absolute and difference thresholds.
3. Discuss subliminal perception.
4. Summarize the parts of the eye including the cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina, rods,
cones, fovea, optic
nerve and blind spot.
5. Explain the process of accommodation within the lens.
6. Define acuity.
7. Describe the differences between nearsightedness and farsightedness.
8. Summarize the parts of the ear including ear canal, ear drum, hammer, anvil, stirrup,
cochlea, auditory
nerve, semicircular canals, and eustachian tubes.
9. Explain sound adaptation.
10. Describe how sounds are localized.
11. Compare and contrast conduction versus sensorimotor hearing loss.
12. Identify the basic orders.
13. Discuss how smell influencing behavior and smell adaptation.
14. Describe the type of taste.
15. Explain kinesthesis and sensorideprivation.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Sensation and Perception
A. Stimulus
B. Sensation
C. Perception
D. Transduction
E. Thresholds
1. Absolute threshold
2. Difference threshold
a. Weber’s Law (principle of constant ratio)
F. Subliminal Perception
II. Vision
A. The Parts of the Eye
1. Cornea
2. Pupil
3. Iris
4. Lens
a. accommodation
5. Retina =
a. Rods
b. Cones
c. Fovea
6. Optic Nerve
a. Blind Spot
B. Factors in vision
1. acuity
a. nearsightedness versus farsightedness
2. Color (Hue)
a. Color theories
(1) Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
(2) Opponent process theory
b. Color blindness (trichromatic, dichromatic, monochromatic)
c. Complementary colors
(1) After image
(2) Complementary colors
(a) Red-green, blue-yellow and black-white
III. Hearing (Audition)
A. The Parts of the Ear
1. Outer Ear - Ear canal and Ear drum
2. Middle Ear - Hammer, anvil , stirrup
3. Inner Ear
a. Cochlea
b. Auditory nerve
c. Semicircular canals
d. Eustachian tubes
B. Sound Adaptation
C. Localization of Sound
D. Deafness
1. Tone Deaf
2. Hard of Hearing (amplitude)
a. Conduction Hearing Loss
b. Sensorimotor Hearing Loss
IV. Miscellaneous Senses
A. Smell
1. Basic Odors
2. Smell and Behavior
3. Smell Adaptation
B. Types of Taste - Sweet, Sour, Bitter and Salty
C. Types of Touch - Pressure, Pain, and Temperature (warm and cold)
D. Kinesthesis
E. Sensorideprivation
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 3: Sensation & Perception
3a Light and the eye
*3b The retina
3c Vision and the brain
3h The sense of hearing
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 5: Sensation (p. 197-236)
Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles
Sensory Adaptation
The Stimulus Input: Light Energy
The Eye
Visual Information Processing
Color Vision
The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves
The Ear
Close-Up: A Noisy Noise Annoys
Hearing Loss and Deaf Cultures
Close-Up: Living in a Silent World
Other Important Senses
Body Position an Movement
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 5 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Contrast sensation and perception, and explain the difference between bottom-up and
2. Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss whether we can
sense stimuli
below our absolute threshold and be influenced by them.
3. Describe sensory adaptation, and explain how we benefit from being unaware of
4. Define transduction, and specify the form of energy our visual system converts into the
messages our brain can interpret.
5. Describe the major structures of the eye, and explain how they guide an incoming ray
of light
toward the eye’s receptor cells.
6. Contrast the two types of receptor cells in the retina, and describe the retina’s reaction
to light.
7. Discuss the different levels of processing that occur as information travels from the
retina to the
brain’s cortex.
8. Define parallel processing, and discuss its role in visual information processing.
9. Explain how the Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand
color vision.
10. Explain the importance of color constancy.
11. Describe the characteristics of the pressure waves we experience as sound.
12. Describe the three regions of the ear, and outline the series of events that triggers the
impulses sent to the brain.
13. Contrast place and frequency theories, and explain how they help us to understand
14. Describe how we pinpoint sounds.
15. Contrast the two types of hearing loss, and describe some of their causes.
16. Describe how cochlear implants function, and explain why Deaf culture advocates
object to these
17. Describe the sense of touch.
18. State the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial approach to pain.
19. Describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction.
20. Describe the sense of smell, and explain why specific odors so easily trigger
21. Distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.
Perception Unit
Unit Length: 5-7 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define visual adaptation.
2. Explain the process of dark and light adaptation.
3. Describe a visual cliff and how it is used in depth perception.
4. Explain the binocular cues of depth of retinal disparity and convergence.
5. Explain the monocular depth cues of relative size, texture gradient, relative height,
linear perspective,
interposition, shadows, and motion parallax.
6. Define and identify examples of the following illusions; figure/ground, reversible
figure, Ponzo illusion,
impossible figures, Mueller-Lyer illusion, Ames room, Zollner illusion, and other
7. Describe and explain the Gestalt concepts of phi phenomenon, figure/ground,
proximity, similarity,
continuity, closure and law of good form.
Class Notes:
I. Visual Adaptation
A. Dark Adaptation (rhodopsin)
B. Light Adaptation
C. Depth Perception
1. Visual Cliff
2. Methods of Determining Depth
a. Binocular Cues
(1) Retinal Disparity
(2) Convergence
b. Monocular Cues
(1) Relative size
(2) Texture gradients
(3) Relative height
(4) Linear perspective
(5) Interposition
(6) Light and Shadow
(7) Motion Parallax
II. Illusions
A. Kinds of Illusions
1. Figure/Ground
2. Reversible Figure
3. Ponzo Illusion
4. Impossible Figures
5. Mueller Lyer
6. Ames Room
7. Zollner
8. Misc Illusions
a. Gamma phenomena
b. Impossible dot
c. 3 finger rd
d. Hole in the hand
III. Gestalt
A. Basic principle (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts)
B. Phi Phenomenon
C. Figure/Ground
D. Gestalt Principles
1. Proximity
2. Similarity
3. Continuity
4. Closure
5. Law of good form
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 3: Sensation & Perception
3d Perception of color
*3e Gestalt psychology
3f Depth perception
*3g Visual illusions
Simulation 3 The Poggendorff illusion
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 6: Perception (p. 237-270)
Selective Attention
Perceptual Illusions
Perceptual Organization
Form Perception
Depth Perception
Motion Perception
Perceptual Constancy
Perceptual Interpretation
Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision
Perceptual Adaptation
Perceptual Set
Perception and the Human Factor
In There Extrasensory Perception?
Claims of ESP
Premonitions or Pretensions?
Putting ESP to Experimental Test
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 6 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Describe the interplay between attention and perception.
2. Explain how illusions help us to understand some of the ways we organize stimuli into
3. Describe Gestalt psychology’s contribution to our understanding of perception.
4. Explain the figure-ground relationship, and identify principles of perceptual grouping
in form
5. Explain the importance of depth perception, and discuss the contribution of visual cliff
to our understanding of this ability.
6. Describe two binocular cues for perceiving depth, and explain how they help the brain
to compute
7. Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several
monocular cues for
perceiving depth.
8. State the basic assumption we make in our perceptions of motion, and explain how
perceptions can be deceiving.
9. Explain the importance of perceptual constancy.
10. Describe the shape and size constancies, and explain how our expectations about
perceived size
and distance contribute to some visual illusions.
11. Discuss lightness constancy and its similarity to color constancy.
12. Describe the contribution of restored-vision and sensory deprivation research in our
of the naturenurture interplay in our perceptions.
13. Explain how the research on distorting goggles increases our understanding of the
adaptability of
14. Define perceptual set, and explain how it influences what we do or do not perceive.
15. Explain why the same stimulus can evoke different perceptions in different contexts.
16. Describe the role human factors psychologists play in creating user-friendly machines
and work
17. Identify the three most testable forms of ESP, and explain why most research
psychologists remain
skeptical of ESP claims.
States of Consciousness Unit
Unit Length: 4-6 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define consciousness.
2. Explain Freud’s concepts of the conscious, subconscious, and unconscious mind.
3. Outline the functioning of an EEG.
4. Explain the measures of amplitude and frequency in an EEG.
5. Describe and be able to identify beta, alpha, theta, and delta waves.
6. Define circadian rhythm.
7. Explain the differences between phase delay and phase advance forms of jet lag.
8. Explain telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance and how they are tested.
9. Define hypnosis.
10. Explain the following phenomena of hypnosis; post-hypnotic suggestion, catalepsy,
age regression,
hypnotic anesthesia, physical controls and time distortion.
11. Summarize the uses of hypnosis.
12. Explain the dangers of hypnosis.
Class Notes:
I. The Nature of Consciousness
A. Definition of Consciousness
B. Freud’s Levels of Consciousness
C. Consciousness and Brain Activity (EEG)
1. EEG (electroencephalograph)
2. Measures
a. Amplitude
b. Frequency
3. Types of Waves
a. Beta (13-24 cps)
b. Alpha (8-12 cps)
c. Theta (4-7 cps)
d. Delta (under 4 cps)a)
II. Biological Rhythms
A. Circadian Rhythm
B. Jet Lag Shifts
1. Phase delay shift
2. Phase advanced shift
III. ESP - Extra Sensory Perception
1. Telepathy - Precognition - Clairvoyance
IV. Hypnosis
A. Definition/Misconceptions/Statistics
B. Posthypnotic suggestion
C. Phenomena of Hypnosis
1. Post-hypnotic suggestion
2. Catalepsy
3. Age regression
4. Hypnotic anesthesia
5. Physical controls
6. Time distortion
D. Uses of Hypnosis
E. Dangers of Hypnosis
V. Sleep and Dreams
A. Sleep
1. Stages of sleep
2. REM (rapid eye movement)
3. Normal night’s sleep
B. Dreams
C. Sleep Disorders
1. Insomnia
2. Narcolepsy
3. Apnea
4. Parasomnias
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 4: Consciousness
*4a Biological rhythms
4b Sleep
4c Abused drugs and their effects
4d Drugs and synaptic transmission
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 7: States of Consciousness (pg. 271-312)
Consciousness and Information Processing
Sleep and Dreams
Biological Rhythms
The Rhythms of Sleep
Why Do We Sleep?
Sleep Disorders
Facts and Falsehoods
Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness?
Drugs and Consciousness
Dependence and Addiction
Psychoactive Drugs
Influences on Drug Use
Near Death Experiences
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 7 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Discuss the history of psychology’s study of consciousness, and contrast conscious and
unconscious information processing.
2. Distinguish four types of biological rhythms, and give an example of each.
3. Describe the cycle of our circadian rhythm, and identify some events that can disrupt
biological clock.
4. List the stages of the sleep cycle, and explain how they differ.
5. Explain why sleep patterns and duration vary from person to person.
6. Discuss several risks associated with sleep deprivation.
7. Identify four theories of why we sleep.
8. Identify the major sleep disorders.
9. Describe the most common content of dreams.
10. Compare the major perspectives on why we dream.
11. Define hypnosis, and note some similarities between the behavior of hypnotized
people and that
of motivated unhypnotized people.
12. Discuss the characteristics of people who are susceptible to hypnosis, and evaluate
claims that
hypnosis can influence people’s memory, will, health, and perception of pain.
13. Give arguments for and against hypnosis as an altered state of consciousness.
14. Define psychoactive drug.
15. Discuss the nature of drug dependence, and identify three common misconceptions
16. Name the main categories of psychoactive drugs, and list three ways these substances
can interfere
with neurotransmission in the brain.
17. Explain how depressants affect nervous system activity and behavior, and summarize
the findings
on alcohol use and abuse.
18. Identify the major stimulants, and explain how they affect neural activity and
19. Describe the physiological and psychological effects of hallucinogens, and
summarize the effects
of LSD and marijuana.
20. Discuss the biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors that contribute to
drug use.
21. Describe the near-death experience and the controversy over whether it provides
evidence for a
mind-body dualism.
Cumulative Test #1
Prologue, Chapters 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and Chapter 3 p. 95-113
(To help prepare for the AP Exam in May, a cumulative test is given at the end of the
first, second, and
third quarters, and prior to the AP Exam. Each test will cover all the material from the
beginning of the
school year to that point.)
Learning Unit
Unit Length: 8-10 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define learning.
2. Explain the kinds of learning; insight, trial and error, classical conditioning, and
3. Define classical conditioning.
4. Describe Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment.
5. Explain and give an example of unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response,
conditioned stimulus,
and conditioned response.
6. Diagram a classical conditioning example.
7. Explain and give an example of normal, delayed, simultaneous, backward and
temporal conditioning.
8. Describe extinction and spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning.
9. Explain discrimination and generalization in classical conditioning.
10. Define instrumental conditioning.
11. Define reinforcement.
12. Explain fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval schedule of
13. Compare and contrast primary versus secondary reinforcement.
14. Compare and contrast positive versus negative reinforcement.
15. Explain shaping
16. Explain extinction and spontaneous recovery in instrumental conditioning.
17. Explain discrimination and generalization in instrumental conditioning.
18. Define punishment.
19. Explain aversive training including escape and avoidance training.
20. Compare and contrast classical versus instrumental conditioning.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Learning
A. Definition of Learning
B. Kinds of Learning
1. Insight (Aha Phenomena)
2. Trial and Error Learning
3. Classical Conditioning (Respondant Conditioning) - Pavlov
4. Instrumental Conditioning (Operant Conditioning) - Skinner
II. Classical Conditioning
A. Definition of Classical Conditioning
B. Pavlov's Dogs
C. Units of Classical Conditioning
1. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
2. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
4. Conditioned Response (CR)
D. Classical Conditioning Diagrams
E. Schedules of Conditioning
1. Normal
2. Delayed
3. Simultaneous
4. Backward
5. Temporal
F. Extinction
1. Spontaneous recovery
G. Discrimination and Generalization
III. Instrumental Conditioning (Operant Conditioning)
A. Definition of Instrumental Conditioning (Skinner Box)
B. Reinforcement (Sr)
1. Schedules of reinforcement
a. Fixed ratio
b. Variable ratio
c. Fixed interval
d. Variable interval
2. Primary/Secondary Reinforcement
3. Positive/Negative Reinforcement
C. Shaping
D. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
E. Generalization and Discrimination
F. Punishment
1. Aversive Training
a. Escape training
b. Avoidance training
2. Learned helplessness
IV. Classical Conditioning versus Instrumental Conditioning
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 5: Learning
5a Overview of classical conditioning
5b Basic processes in classical conditioning
5c Overview of operant conditioning
5d Schedules of reinforcement
5e Reinforcement and punishment
5f Avoidance and escape Learning
*Simulation 4 Shaping in operant conditioning
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 8: Learning (pg. 313-348)
How Do We Learn?
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Experiments
Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
Pavlov’s Legacy
Close-Up: Trauma as Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s Experiments
Extending Skinner’s Understanding
Skinner’s Legacy
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
Learning by Observation
Bandura’s Experiments
Applications of Observational Learning
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 8 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Define learning, and identify two forms of learning.
2. Define classical conditioning and behaviorism, and describe the basic components of
3. Describe the timing requirements for the initial learning of a stimulus-response
4. Summarize the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and
5. Discuss the survival value of generalization and discrimination.
6. Discuss the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning.
7. Describe some of the ways that biological predispositions can affect learning by
8. Summarize Pavlov’s contribution to our understanding of learning.
9. Describe some uses of classical conditioning to improve human health and well-being.
10. Identify the two major characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from
11. State Thorndike’s law of effect, and explain its connection to Skinner’s research on
12. Describe the shaping procedure, and explain how it can increase our understanding of
nonverbal animals and babies can discriminate.
13. Compare positive and negative reinforcement, and give one example each of a
primary reinforcer,
a conditioned reinforcer, an immediate reinforcer, and a delayed reinforcer.
14. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of continuous and partial (intermittent)
schedules, and identify four schedules of partial reinforcement.
15. Discuss the ways negative punishment, and positive punishment, and negative
differ, and list some drawbacks of punishment as a behavior-control technique.
16. Explain how latent learning and the effect of external rewards demonstrate that
processing is an important part of learning.
17. Explain how biological predispositions place limits on what can be achieved with
18. Describe the controversy over Skinner’s views of human behavior.
19. Describe some ways to apply operant conditioning principles at school, in sports, and
at home.
20. Identify the major similarities and differences between classical and operant
21. Describe the process of observational learning, and explain the importance of the
discovery of
mirror neurons.
22. Describe Bandura’s findings on what determines whether we will imitate a model.
23. Discuss the impact of prosocial modeling.
24. Explain why correlations cannot prove that watching violent TV causes violent
behavior, and cite
some experimental evidence that helps demonstrate a cause-effect link.
Memory Unit
Unit Length: 7-9 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define memory.
2. Explain encoding, storage, and retrieval.
3. Explain structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding.
4. Discuss mnemonic devices using the link method and the method of loci.
5. Discuss the differences between massed and distributed practice.
6. Compare and contrast whole versus part learning.
7. Explain positive and negative transfer.
8. Define overlearning.
9. Explain the phenomena of feedback.
10. Draw a learning curve.
11. Explain the differences between recognition, recall and relearning.
12. Draw a forgetting curve.
13. Explain elapse of time theory of forgetting.
14. Compare and contrast retroactive versus proactive inhibition.
15. Explain how inattention influences forgetting.
16. Explain repression and the Zeigarnik effect.
17. Summarize the long versus short term memory theory.
Class Notes:
I. Memory
A. Encoding/Storage/Retrieval
B. Verbal Memory
1. Structural encoding
2. Phonemic encoding
3. Semantic encoding
C. Mnemonic Devices
1. Link method
2. Method of loci
II. Factors That Effect Learning
A. Practice (rehearsal)
1. Massed Practice (continuous practice)
2. Distributed Practice
B. Whole Versus Part Learning
C. Meaningfulness
D. Transfer
1. Positive transfer
2. Negative transfer
E. Mnemonic Devices
F. Overlearning
G. Feedback
III. Stages in the Learning Process
A. Learning Curve and Learning Plateaus
B. Remembering/Retention
1. Types of remembering
a. Recognition
b. Recall
c. Relearning (method of savings)
IV. Remembering and Forgetting Theories
A. Forgetting (Retention) Curve Ebbinghaus Curve)
B. Forgetting Theories
1. Elapse of Time Theory
2. Interference Effects
a. retroactive inhibition (retroactive interference)
b. Proactive inhibition (proactive interference)
3. Inattention
4. Motivated Forgetting
a. Repression
b. Zeigarnik effect
5. Long Versus Short Term Memory Theory
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 6: Memory & Thought
*6a Memory encoding
*6b Memory storage
6c Physiology of memory
Simulation 5 Memory processes I
Simulation 6 Memory processes II
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 9: Memory (pg. 349-394)
The Phenomenon of Memory
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
What We Encode
Storage: Retaining Information
Sensory Memory
Working/Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
Storing Memories in the Brain
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Retrieval Cues
Close-Up: Retrieving Passwords
Encoding Failure
Storage Decay
Retrieval Failure
Memory Construction
Misinformation and Imagination Effects
Source Amnesia
Discerning True and False Memories
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?
Improving Memory
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 9 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Define memory, and explain how flashbulb memories differ from other memories.
2. Describe Atkinson-Shiffrin’s classic three-stage processing model of memory, and
explain how
the contemporary model of working memory differs.
3. Describe the types of information we encode automatically.
4. Contrast effortful processing with automatic processing, and discuss the next-in-line
effect, the
spacing effect, and the serial position effect.
5. Compare the benefits of visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding in remembering
information, and describe a memory-enhancing strategy related to the self-reference
6. Explain how encoding imagery aids effortful processing, and describe some memoryenhancing
strategies that use visual encoding.
7. Discuss the use of chunking and hierarchies in effortful processing.
8. Contrast two types of sensory memory.
9. Describe the duration and working capacity of short-term memory.
10. Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory.
11. Discuss the synaptic changes that accompany memory formation and storage.
12. Discuss some ways stress hormones can affect memory.
13. Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the main brain
structure associated
with each.
14. Contrast the recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.
15. Explain how retrieval cues can help us access stored memories, and describe the
process of
16. Cite some ways that context can affect retrieval.
17. Describe the effects of internal states on retrieval.
18. Explain why we should value our ability to forget, and distinguish three general ways
our memory
fails us.
19. Discuss the role of encoding failure in forgetting.
20. Discuss the concept of storage decay, and describe Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve.
21. Contrast proactive and retroactive interference, and explain how they can cause
retrieval failure.
22. Summarize Freud’s concept of repression, and state whether this view is reflected in
memory research.
23. Explain how misinformation and imagination can distort our memory of an event.
24. Describe source amnesia’s contribution to false memories.
25. List some differences and similarities between true and false memories.
26. Give arguments supporting and rejecting the position that very young children’s
reports of abuse
are reliable.
27. Discuss the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories of
childhood sexual
28. Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study
Cognition Unit
Unit Length: 7-9 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define problem solving.
2. Explain the types of problems.
3. Describe the barriers to problem solving.
4. Define thinking.
5. Define concepts.
6. Explain a photographic mind.
7. Compare and contrast induction versus deduction.
8. Explain the purpose of language.
9. Explain phonemes, morphemes and grammar in the structure of language.
10. Explain the pre-speech stage of language development.
11. Describe holophrastic speech.
12. Define telegraphic speech.
Class Notes:
I. Problem Solving
A. Definition
B. Types of Problems
1. Inducing structure
2. Arrangement
3. Transformation
C. Barriers of problem solving
1. Irrelevant information
2. Functional fixedness
3. Mental set
4. Unnecessary constraints
II. Thinking
A. Definition of Thinking
B. Concepts
C. Photographic Mind
D. Imagination and Creativity
E. Reasoning
1. Induction
2. Deduction
III. Language Development
A. Purpose of language
B. Structure of Language
1. Phonemes
2. Morphemes
3. Grammar
C. Language Acquisition
1. Pre-Speech Stage
a. Crying and gestures
b. Babbling
c. Jargon stage
2. Speech Stage
a. Holophrastic speech
b. Two word sentences
(1) Telegraphic speech
c. Longer sentences
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 6: Memory & Thought
*6d Problem solving
6e Decision making
Simulation 1 Experimenting with the Stroop test
*Simulation 7 Problem solving
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 10: Thinking and Language (pg. 395-430)
Solving Problems
Making Decisions and Forming Judgements
Belief Bias
Language Structure
Language Development
Thinking and Language
Language Influences Thinking
Thinking in Images
Animal Thinking and Language
Do Animals Think?
Do Animals Exhibit Language?
The Case of the Apes
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 10 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Define cognition.
2. Describe the roles of categories, hierarchies, definitions, and prototypes in concept
3. Compare algorithms and heuristics as problem-solving strategies, and explain how
insight differs
from both of them.
4. Contrast the confirmation bias and fixation, and explain how they can interfere with
problem solving.
5. Contrast the representativeness and availability heuristics, and explain how they can
cause us to
underestimate or ignore important information.
6. Describe the drawbacks and advantages of overconfidence in decision making.
7. Describe how others can use framing to elicit from us the answers they want.
8. Discuss how our preexisting beliefs can distort our logic.
9. Describe the remedy for the belief perseverance phenomenon.
10. Describe the smart thinker’s reaction to using intuition to solve problems.
11. Describe the basic structural units of a language.
12. Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through the twoword stage.
13. Discuss Skinner’s and Chomsky’s contributions to the nature-nurture debate over
how children
acquire language, and explain why statistical learning and critical periods are important
in children’s language learning.
14. Summarize Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis, and comment on its standing
contemporary psychology.
15. Discuss the value of thinking in images.
16. List five cognitive skills shared by the great apes and humans.
17. Outline the arguments for and against the idea that animals and humans share the
capacity for
Intelligence Unit
Unit Length: 6-8 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define intelligence.
2. Explain the differences between mental ability, intelligence, and personality tests.
3. Explain the differences between aptitude and achievement tests.
4. Define and give an example of standardization.
5. Explain norms and how they are determined with percentile scores and standardization
6. Summarize the four types of reliability.
7. Summarize the three type of validity.
8. Outline a brief history of intelligence testing.
9. Explain questions regarding modern intelligence tests.
10. Explain how gifted students are identified.
11. Explain Terman’s studies on gifted students.
12. Define mental retardation and how it is classified.
13. Compare and contrast the various theories of intelligence.
Class Notes:
I. Definition of Intelligence
II. Psychological Test Concepts
A. Types of Tests
1. Mental Ability Tests
a. Aptitude Test
b. Achievement Test
2. Personality Tests
B. Standardization
C. Norms
1. Percentile score
2. Standardization group
D. Reliability (consistency)
1. Test-Retest reliability
2. Alternate-forms reliability
3. Internal consistency reliability
4. Interrater reliability
E. Validity (accuracy)
1. Content validity
2. Criterion-Related Validity (predictive validity)
3. Construct Validity
III. History of Intelligence Testing
1. Galton (Eugenics)
2. Binet
3. Stanford-Binet
4. Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale
IV. Questions Regarding Intelligence Testing
A. Why are People Given Intelligence Test?
B. Are IQ Tests widely used in Other Cultures?
C. What Kind of Questions are on Intelligence Tests?
D. What do Modern IQ Scores Mean?
E. Do Intelligence Tests Measure Potential or Knowledge?
F. How Reliable are Intelligence Tests?
G. How Valid are Intelligence Tests?
H. Are IQ Scores Stable over Time?
I. Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success?
V. Extremes of Intelligence
A. Gifted
1. Identifying Gifted Students
2. Terman’s Studies
B. Mental Retardation
1. Classifications
a. Mild classification
b. Moderate
c. Severe
d. Profound
2. Causes of MR
VI. Intelligence Theories
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 7: Testing & Intelligence
7a Types of psychological tests
7b Key concepts in testing
*7c Understanding IQ scores
7d Heredity, environment, and intelligence
Simulation 8 Psychological testing: Creativity
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 11: Intelligence (pg. 431-468)
What is Intelligence?
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Emotional Intelligence
Intelligence and Creativity
Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable?
Assessing Intelligence
The Origins of Intelligence Testing
Modern Test of Mental Abilities
Principles of Test Construction
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Stability or Change?
Extremes of Intelligence
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Genetic Influences
Environmental Influences
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
The Question of Bias
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 11 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Discuss the difficulty of defining intelligence, and explain what it means to “reify
2. Present arguments for and against considering intelligence as one general mental
3. Compare Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of intelligences.
4. Describe the four aspects of emotional intelligence, and discuss criticisms of this
5. Identify the factors associated with creativity, and describe the relationship between
creativity and
6. Describe the relationship between intelligence and brain anatomy.
7. Discuss findings on the correlations between perceptual speed, neural processing
speed, and
8. Define intelligence test, and discuss the history of intelligence testing.
9. Distinguish between aptitude and achievement tests, and describe modern tests of
mental abilities
such as the WAIS.
10. Discuss the importance of standardizing psychological tests, and describe the
distribution of scores
in a normalcurve.
11. Explain what it means to say that a test is reliable.
12. Explain what it means to say a test is valid, and describe two types of validity.
13. Describe the stability of intelligence scores over the life span.
14. Discuss the two extremes of the normal distribution of intelligence.
15. Discuss the evidence for the genetic contribution to individual intelligence, and
explain what
psychologists mean by the heritability of intelligence.
16. Discuss the evidence for environmental influences on individual intelligence.
17. Describe ethnic similarities and differences in intelligence test scores, and discuss
some genetic
and environmental factors that might explain them.
18. Describe gender differences in abilities.
19. Discuss whether intelligence tests are biased, and describe the stereotype threat
Developmental Psychology Unit
Unit Length: 8-10 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define developmental psychology.
2. Explain the six general principles of development.
3. Discuss the nature versus nurture argument.
4. Compare and contrast longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies.
5. Explain instincts, reflexes, and imprinting.
6. Describe how prenatal influences later behavior.
7. Describe childhood physical development.
8. Explain the sequence of motor development.
9. Explain emotional and social development in children.
10. Define cognitive development.
11. Explain Piaget’s concepts of schemata, equilibrium, assimilation, and
12. Describe the Piaget’s sensorimotor stage with object permanence.
13. Explain Piaget’s preoperational stage.
14. Explain Piaget’s concrete stage including the concepts of conservation and
15. Explain Piaget’s formal stage of cognitive development
16. Summarize Kubler-Ross’ five stages of death and dying.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Developmental Psychology
A. Definition of Developmental Psychology
B. General Principles of Development
C. Nature Versus Nurture Argument
D. Kinds of Development
E. Means/Methods of Study
1. Longitudinal study
2. Cross sectional study
II. Biological Elements of Development
A. Inborn Behavior Patterns
1. Instincts
2. Reflexes
3. Imprinting
III. Environmental Elements of Development
A. Prenatal Development
B. Physical Development
C. Motor Development
1. Sequence of development
a. Head
b. Body trunk
c. Arms and legs
D. Emotional Development
E. Social Development
IV. Piaget's Cognitive Stages of Development
A. Basic Principles of Intellectual Development
1. Schemata
2. Equilibrium
3. Adaptation
a. Assimilation
b. Accommodation
B. Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
a. Object permanence - "out of sight out of mind"
2. Preoperational Stage (2-6)
3. Concrete Stage (6-12)
a. Conservation
b. Reversibility
4. Formal Stage (12 and up)
V. Kubler-Ross Theory of Death and Dying
A. Five stages
1. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Activities for Developmental Psychology Unit (see below for details)
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 9: Human Development
*9a Prenatal development
9b Erikson’s theory of personality development
9c Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
*9d Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
Textbook Usage: Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth.
ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 4: Developing Through the Life Span (pg. 139-196)
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Prenatal Development
The Competent Newborn
Close-Up: Research Strategies for Understanding Infants’ Thinking
Infancy and Childhood
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Close-Up: Autism
Social Development
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social Development
Emerging Adulthood
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social Development
Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues
Continuity and Stages
Stability and Change
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 4 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the
three major
issues in developmental psychology.
2. Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.
3. Define zygote, embryo, and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.
4. Describe some abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to
infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
5. Describe some developmental changes in a child’s brain, and explain why maturation
accounts for
many of our similarities.
6. Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and
the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.
7. Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.
8. State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of
and accommodation in this process.
9. Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how
thinking changes during these four stages.
10. Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
11. Define stranger anxiety.
12. Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social
13. Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants
in the
development of attachment and an infant’s feelings of basic trust.
14. Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment
patterns and
15. Trace the onset and development of children’s self-concept.
16. Describe three parenting styles, and offer three potential explanations for the link
authoritative parenting and social competence.
17. Define adolescence.
18. Identify the major physical changes during adolescence.
19. Describe the changes in reasoning abilities that Piaget called formal operations.
20. Discuss moral development from the perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling,
and moral
21. Identify Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development and their accompanying
22. Explain how the search for identity affects us during adolescence, and discuss how
forming an
identity prepares us for intimacy.
23. Contrast parental and peer influences during adolescence.
24. Discuss the characteristics of emerging adulthood.
25. Identify the major physical changes that occur in middle adulthood.
26. Compare life expectancy in the mid-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and
discuss changes
in sensory abilities and health (including frequency of dementia) in older adults.
27. Assess the impact of aging on recall and recognition in adulthood.
28. Summarize the contributions of cross-cultural and longitudinal studies to our
understanding of the
normal effects of aging on adult intelligence.
29. Explain why the path of adult development need not be tightly linked to one’s
chronological age.
30. Discuss the importance of love, marriage, and children in adulthood, and comment on
contribution of one’s work to feelings of self-satisfaction.
31. Describe trends in people’s life satisfaction across the life span.
32. Describe the range of reactions to the death of a loved one.
33. Summarize current views on continuity versus stages and stability versus change in
Cumulative Test #2
Prologue, Chapters 1-11 and Chapter 3 p. 95-113
(To help prepare for the AP Exam in May, a cumulative test is given at the end of the
first, second, and
third quarters, and prior to the AP Exam. Each test will cover all the material from the
beginning of the
school year to that point.)
Semester I Final Exam
Personality Unit
Unit Length: 8-10 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define personality.
2. Describe the factors that influence personality.
3. Explain Freud’s basic axiom.
4. Explain the conscious, subconscious and unconscious mind.
5. Compare and contrast the id, ego, and superego.
6. Explain and give examples of Freud’s various defense mechanisms.
7. Explain the differences between Jung’s personal and collective unconscious.
8. Explain introversion versus extroversion.
9. Summarize Adler’s striving for superiority and the inferiority complex.
10. Outline Sullivan’s theory of personality.
11. Explain Fromm’s transcendence, relatedness, rootedness, personal identity, and
12. Describe Roger’s theory of personality including the actualizing tendency.
13. Compare and contrast unconditional positive regard versus conditional positive
14. Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
15. Describe Sheldon’s endomorph, mesomorph, and ectomorph.
16. Explain the behaviorist’s theory of personality.
17. Describe self report personality measures including the MMPI and CPI.
18. Explain the working of situational personality measurements.
19. Explain protective personality measures including the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Class Notes:
I. Definition of Personality
II. Factors Influencing Personality
A. Heredity
B. Homelife
C. Peer Influence
D. Schools
E. Birth Order
III. Freudian Theories of Personality
A. Freud
1. Theory
a. Basic axiom
b. Structure of the Mind
(1) Conscious - Subconscious - Unconscious
c. Structure of Personality
(1) Id - Pleasure Principle
(2) Ego - Reality Principle
(3) Superego
2. Defense Mechanisms
(1) Repression
(2) Avoidance
(3) Denial
(4) Undoing
(5) Fantasy
(6) Regression
(7) Projection
(8) Rationalization
(a) sour grapes
(b) sweet lemon
(9) Identification
(10) Displacement
(11) Reaction Formation
(12) Sublimation
(13) Intellectualization
(14) Compensation
B. Neo-Freudians
1. Jung (Analytical Psychology)
a. Split unconscious into two distinct parts
(1) Personal or individual unconscious
(2) Collective or racial unconscious
b. Introversion versus Extroversion
2. Alfred Adler
a. Strive for Superiority
b. Inferiority Complex
3. Harry Sullivan - Interpersonal relationships
4. Erik Fromm - Search For Identity
a. Transcendence
b. Relatedness
c. Rootedness
d. Personal Identity
e. Reference
IV. The Humanists & Trait Theories
A. Humanism
1. Rogers
a. Actualizing Tendency
b. Self concept
c. Unconditional and Conditional Positive Regard
2. Maslow's Theory of Needs
(1) Fundamental needs
(a) Physiological (basic) needs
(b) Safety needs
(2) Psychological needs
(a) Love and belonging.
(b) Esteem
(c) Self actualization
B. Sheldon's Body Type Theory
a. Endomorph - Mesomorph - Ectomorph
V. Learning Theory - the Behaviorists
VI. Personality Measurement
A. Self Report Approaches
1. MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
2. California Personality Inventory
B. Situational Tests
C. Projective Tests
1. Rorschach's Inkblot Test
2. TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Who Am I Paper (see below for details)
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 10: Personality Theory
10a Freudian theory
10b Behavioral theory
10c Humanistic theory
10d Biological theory
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 15: Personality (pg. 595-638)
The Psychoanalytical Perspective
Exploring the Unconscious
The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists
Assessing Unconscious Processes
Evaluating the Psychoanalytical Perspective
The Humanistic Perspective
Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualization Person
Carl Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective
Assessing the Self
Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
The Trait Perspective
Exploring Traits
Assessing Traits
The Big Five Factors
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Reciprocal Influences
Personal Control
Close-Up: Toward a More Positive Psychology
Assessing Behavior in Situations
Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective
Exploring the Self
The Benefits of Self-Esteem
Culture and Self-Esteem
Self-Serving Bias
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 15 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Define personality.
2. Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to theory of psychoanalysis.
3. Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to
conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.
4. Describe Freud’s view of personality structure, and discuss the interactions of the id,
ego, and
5. Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of
fixation on
6. Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them.
7. Contrast the views of the neo-Freudians and psychodynamic theorists with Freud’s
original theory.
8. Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of
9. Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.
10. Summarize Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, and explain how his
ideas illustrate
the humanistic perspective.
11. Discuss Carl Rogers’ person-centered perspective, and explain the importance of
positive regard.
12. Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality.
13. State the major criticisms of the humanistic perspective on personality.
14. Cite the main difference between the trait psychoanalytic perspectives on personality.
15. Describe some of the ways psychologists have attempted to compile a list of basic
16. Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the
most widely
used inventory.
17. Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this
approach to
studying personality.
18. Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a
commentary on the
trait perspective.
19. Explain why psychologists are interested in the consistency of the trait of
20. Describe the social-cognitive perspective, and explain how reciprocal determinism
illustrates that
21. Discuss the effects of a perception of internal or external control, and describe the
concept of
learned helplessness.
22. Discuss the link between performance and optimistic or pessimistic attributional
style, and contrast
positive psychology with humanistic psychology.
23. Explain why social-cognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations.
24. Summarize the criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective.
25. Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self, and give three
examples of
current research on the self.
26. Give two alternative explanations for the positive correlation between low self-esteem
personal problems.
27. Discuss some ways that people maintain their self-esteem under conditions of
discrimination or
low status.
28. Discuss some evidence for self-serving bias, and contrast defensive and secure selfesteem.
Motivation Unit
Unit Length: 6-8 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define motivation.
2. Explain the sources of motivation.
3. Describe the Instinct theory of motivation.
4. Explain the drive reduction theory of motivation including homeostasis, needs, and
both primary and
secondary drives.
5. Explain the arousal theory of motivation.
6. Summarize the elements of hunger.
7. Outline the various eating disorders including, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and pica.
8. Explain achievement motivation.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Motivation
A. Definition of Motivation
B. Sources of Motivation
1. Biology
2. Emotional
3. Cognitive
4. Social
II. Theories of Motivation
A. Instinct Theories and Descendants
B. Drive Reduction Theory
1. Homeostasis
2. Need
3. Drives
a. Primary and Secondary Drives
C. Arousal Theory
1. Optimum level of arousal
D. Incentive Theory
III. Hunger
IV. Eating Disorders
A. Anorexia Nervosa
1. Biological Symptoms
2. Psychological/Social Symptoms
B. Bulimia
C. Pica
V. Achievement Motivation
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 8: Motivation & Emotion
8a Hunger
*8b Achievement motivation
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 12: Motivation and Work (pg. 469-512)
Perspectives and Work
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
Drives and Incentives
Optimum Arousal
A Hierarchy of Needs
The Physiology of Hunger
The Psychology of Hunger
Sexual Motivation
The Physiology of Sex
The Psychology of Sex
Adolescent Sexuality
Sexual Orientation
Sex and Human Values
The Need to Belong
Motivation at Work
Close-Up: I/O Psychology at Work
Personnel Psychology
Harnessing Strengths
Close-Up: Discovering Your Strengths
Organizational Psychology: Motivating Achievement
Close-Up: Doing Well while Doing Good: “The Great Experiment”
Chapter 14: Stress and Health (pg. 575-593)
Promoting Health
Modifying Illness-Related Behaviors
Close-Up: For Those Who Want to Stop Smoking
Close-Up: For Those Who Want to Lose Weight
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 12 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Define motivation as psychologists use the term today, and name four perspectives
useful for
studying motivated behavior.
2. Discuss the similarities and differences between instinct theory and the evolutionary
3. Explain how drive-reduction theory views human motivation.
4. Discuss the contribution of arousal theory to the study of motivation.
5. Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of motives.
6. Describe the physiological determinants of hunger.
7. Discuss psychological and cultural influences on hunger.
8. Explain how the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa demonstrate
the influence
of psychological forces on physiologically motivated behavior.
9. Describe the human sexual response cycle, and discuss some causes of sexual
10. Discuss the impact of hormones on sexual motivation and behavior.
11. Describe the role of external stimuli and fantasies in sexual motivation and behavior.
12. Discuss some of the forces that influence teen pregnancy and teen attitudes toward
13. Describe trends in the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
14. Summarize current views on the number of people whose sexual orientation is
homosexual, and
discuss the research on environmental and biological influences on sexual orientation.
15. Discuss the place of values in sex research.
16. Describe the adaptive value of social attachments, and identify both healthy and
consequences of our need to belong.
17. Discuss the importance of flow, and identify the three subfields of industrialorganizational
18. Describe how personnel psychologists help organizations with employee selection,
placement, and performance appraisal.
19. Define achievement motivation, and explain why organizations would employ an I/O
to help motivate employees and foster employee satisfaction.
20. Describe some effective management techniques.
Chapter 14 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
18. Explain why people smoke.
19. Discuss ways of helping smokers to quit smoking—or preventing young people from
ever starting.
20. Discuss the adaptive advantages, and modern-day disadvantages, of a body that stores
21. Describe some of the social effects of obesity.
22. Discuss some research findings on the role of heredity and environment in
determining body
23. Discuss the chances of success for an overweight person who wants to lose weight.
Emotions and Stress Unit
Unit Length: 6-8 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define emotions.
2. Explain the physiological measures of emotions.
3. Describe the workings and theory behind a polygraph.
4. Explain the three methods of expressing emotions.
5. Explain the James-Lange theory of emotions.
6. Explain the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions.
7. Explain the Schachter Two factor theory of emotions.
8. Explain Arnold’s stages of emotions.
9. Explain the Jukebox theory of emotions.
10. Describe Plutchik’s eight basic emotions.
11. List the causes of stress.
12. Explain the three types of conflict; approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and
13. Define frustration.
14. Define pressure.
15. Explain the factors that influence the severity of stress.
16. Explain the reactions to stress.
17. Explain Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome.
Class Notes:
I. Emotions
A. Definition of Emotions
B. Measurement of Emotions
1. Methods of measurement include:
a. Galvanic skin response (GSR)
b. Muscle tension
c. EEG (electroencephalograph)
d. EKG (electrocardiograph)
2. Polygraph
C. Expression of Emotions
1. Actual behavior
2. Voice inflection and tone
3. Non- Verbal Communication - Body language
D. Theories on Emotions
1. Psychophysiological Theories
a. James-Lange Theory
b. Cannon-Bard
2. Schachter-Two Factor Theory of Emotions
3. Arnold - Perception - Appraisal - body change - emotion - action
4. Jukebox Theory
5. Plutchik’s Eight Basic Emotions
II. Stress
A. Causes of Stress
1. Conflict
a. Approach-Approach
b. Avoidance-Avoidance
c. Approach-Avoidance
2. Frustration
3. Pressure
B. Factors that effect the severity of stress
1. Duration of the demand
2. Multiplicity of demands
3. Imminence of the stressor
4. Perception of the threat
5. Individual Differences
6. External Resources and support
C. Reactions to Stress
1. Task oriented
2. Defense oriented
3. Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
a. Alarm
b. Resistance
c. Exhaustion
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 8: Motivation & Emotion
8c Elements of emotion
8d Theories of emotion
Unit 11: Abnormal Behavior & Therapy
*11f Types of stress
11g Responding to stress
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 13: Emotion (pg. 513-548)
Theories of Emotion
Embodied Emotion
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
Physiological Similarities Among Specific Emotions
Physiological Differences Among Specific Emotions
Cognition and Emotion
Expressed Emotion
Nonverbal Communication
Detecting and Computing Emotion
Culture and Emotional Expression
The Effects of Facial Expressions
Experienced Emotion
Close-Up: How to Be Happier
Chapter 14: Stress and Health (pg. 549-575)
Stress and Illness
Stress and Stressors
Stress and the Heart
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
Promoting Health
Coping with Stress
Close-Up: Pets are Friends, Too
Managing Stress
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 13 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Identify the three components of emotion, and contrast the James-Lange, CannonBard, and twofactor
theories of emotion.
2. Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.
3. Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.
4. Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.
5. Describe some physiological and brain-pattern indicators of specific emotions.
6. Explain how the spillover effect influences our experience of emotions.
7. Distinguish the two alternative pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when
triggering an
emotional response.
8. Describe some of the factors that affect our ability to decipher nonverbal cues.
9. Describe some gender differences in perceiving and communicating emotions.
10. Discuss the research on reading and misreading facial and behavioral indicators of
11. Discuss the culture-specific and culturally universal aspects of emotional expression,
and explain
how emotional expressions could enhance survival.
12. Discuss the facial feedback and behavior feedback phenomena, and give an example
of each.
13. Name several basic emotions, and describe two dimensions psychologists use to
14. State two ways we learn our fears.
15. Discuss some of the biological components of fear.
16. Identify some common triggers and consequences of anger, and assess the catharsis
17. Describe how the feel-good, do-good phenomenon works, and discuss the importance
of research
on subjective well-being.
18. Discuss some of the daily and longer-term variations in the duration of emotions.
19. Summarize the findings on the relationship between affluence and happiness.
20. Describe how adaptation and relative deprivation affect our appraisals of our
21. Summarize the ways that we can influence our own levels of happiness.
Chapter 14 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Identify some behavior-related causes of illness and death, and describe health
contribution to the field of behavioral medicine.
2. Discuss the role of appraisal in the way we respond to stressful events.
3. Describe the dual-track system by which our body responds to stress, and identify the
three phases
of the general adaptation syndrome.
4. Discuss the health consequences of catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily
5. Discuss the role of stress in causing coronary heart disease, and contrast Type A and
Type B
6. Distinguish between a psychophysiological illness and hypochondriasis.
7. Describe the effect of stress on immune system functioning.
8. Discuss the findings on the link between stress and AIDS.
9. Discuss the findings on the link between stress and cancer.
10. Describe the impact of learning on immune system functioning.
11. Contrast problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.
12. Describe how a perceived lack of control can affect health.
13. Discuss the links among explanatory style, stress, and health.
14. Describe some of the ways that social support acts as a stress buffer.
15. Discuss the advantages of aerobic exercise as a technique for managing stress and
fostering wellbeing.
16. Compare the benefits of biofeedback and relaxation training as stress-management
techniques, and
discuss meditation as a relaxation technique.
17. Discuss the correlation between religiosity and longevity, and offer some possible
explanations for
this link.
Abnormal Psychology Unit
Unit Length: 9-11 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Define abnormal.
2. Explain the approaches to defining abnormal behavior.
3. Compare and contrast sane versus insane.
4. Explain the theoretical origins of abnormal behavior.
5. Explain the DSM and how abnormal behaviors are classified on the five axis.
6. Explain anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder,
phobias, obsessive
compulsive disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder.
7. Explain dissociative disorders including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and
identity disorder.
8. Explain the four types of amnesia.
9. Explain somatorform disorders including conversion disorder and hypochondriasis.
10. Explain mood disorders including biplorar disorders, seasonal effective disorder, and
11. Explain the symptoms of schizophrenia.
12. Explain the type of schizophrenia.
13. Explain the personality disorders.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction Abnormal Psychology
A. Definition of Abnormal
1. Approaches of defining abnormal
a. Statistical (infrequency)
b. Maladaptiveness and Harmfulness
c. Personal Discomfort or Individual
d. Cultural Definition (norm violation)
(1) Cultural norms
2. Sanity versus insanity
B. Origins of Abnormal Behavior
1. Biological Approach
2. Psychological Approach
3. Sociocultural Approach
4. Supernatural approach
C. DSM-IV Classification system
1. DSM is a multiaxial classification system on 5 levels
a. Axis I, II, III, IV, and V
II. Anxiety Disorders
A. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
B. Panic Disorder
C. Phobia - Agoraphobia
D. Obsessive-Compulsive
E. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
III. Dissociative Disorders
A. Psychogenic Amnesia
1. Dissociative Amnesia (Psychogenic Amnesia)
2. Types of amnesia
a. Localized amnesia
b. Selective amnesia
c. Continuous amnesia
d. Generalized amnesia
B. Dissociative Fugue (Psychogenic Fugue)
C. Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
IV. Somatoform Disorders
A. Conversion Disorder
B. Hypochondriasis (Hypochondriacal Neurosis)
V. Mood Disorders
A. Bipolar Disorder (once called Manic-depressive)
B. Seasonal Effective Disorders
C. Major Depression
VI. Schizophrenia
A. Symptoms
1. Disturbance in thought and language (Disorganized thinking)
2. Depersonalization
3. Hallucinations
4. Delusions - Grandiose & Paranoid
5. Ahedonia - bland affect
6. Isolation
B. Types of Schizophrenia
1. Paranoid type
2. Disorganized Type (once called Hebephrenic Schizophrenia) - Word salad
3. Catatonic type - Catatonic stupor (waxy flexibility)
VII. Personality Disorders
A. Paranoid Personality Disorder
B. Schizoid Personality Disorder
C. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
D. Histrionic Personality Disorder
E. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
F. Anti-social Personality Disorder
G. Avoidant Personality Disorder
H. Dependent Personality Disorder
I. Compulsive Personality Disorder
VIII. Substance Use Disorder - Alcoholism
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Abnormal Psychology Research Paper (see below for details)
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 11: Abnormal Behavior & Therapy
11a Anxiety disorders
11b Mood disorders
11c Schizophrenic disorders
Simulation 9 Clinical diagnosis
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders (pg. 639-684)
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
Defining Psychological Disorders
Understanding Psychological Disorders
Classifying Psychological Disorders
Labeling Psychological Disorders
Close-Up: The “un-DSM”: A Diagnosis Manual of Human Strengths
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Explaining Mood Disorders
Close-Up: Suicide
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Understanding Schizophrenia
Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder
Rates of Psychological Disorders
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 16 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Identify the criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.
2. Contrast the medical model of psychological disorders with the biopsychosocial
approach to
disordered behavior.
3. Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.
4. Discuss the potential dangers and benefits of using diagnostic labels.
5. Define anxiety disorders, and explain how these conditions differ from normal feelings
of stress,
tension, or uneasiness.
6. Contrast the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.
7. Explain how a phobia differs from the fears we all experience.
8. Describe the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
9. Describe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and discuss survivor
10. Discuss the contributions of the learning and biological perspectives to our
understanding of the
development of anxiety disorders.
11. Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders, and explain why some critics are
skeptical about
dissociative identity disorder.
12. Define mood disorders, and contrast major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.
13. Discuss the facts that an acceptable theory of depression must explain.
14. Summarize the contributions of the biological perspective to the study of depression,
and discuss
the link between suicide and depression.
15. Summarize the contributions of the social-cognitive perspective to the study of
depression, and
describe the events in the cycle of depression.
16. Describe the symptoms of schizophrenia, and differentiate delusions and
17. Distinguish the five subtypes of schizophrenia, and contrast chronic and acute
18. Outline some abnormal brain chemistry, functions, and structures associated with
and discuss the possible link between prenatal viral infections and schizophrenia.
19. Discuss the evidence for a genetic contribution to the development of schizophrenia.
20. Describe some psychological factors that may be early warning signs of
schizophrenia in children.
21. Contrast the three clusters of personality disorders, and describe the behaviors and
brain activity
associated with antisocial personality disorder.
22. Discuss the prevalence of psychological disorders, and summarize the findings on the
link between
poverty and serious psychological disorders.
Treatment of Abnormal Unit
Unit Length: 6-8 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Compare and contrast the many types of therapies.
2. Explain the goals of psychological therapy.
3. Explain the different types of therapists.
4. Explain Freud’s psychodynamic therapy.
5. Explain Roger’s Client Centered Therapy.
6. Explain the various cognitive therapies.
7. Explain the behavioral therapies.
8. Explain psychosurgery and ECT therapy.
9. Discuss the various types of behavior drugs and their use.
10. Evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies.
Class Notes:
I. Introduction to Therapy
A. Overview of Major Therapies
1. Biomedical therapies
2. Psychotherapy
a. Psychodynamic approach
b. Behavior therapy
c. Cognitive therapy
d. Humanistic therapy
e. Eclectic Approach (psychotherapy integration)
B. Goals of therapist and patient
1. Diagnosis - Etiology - Prognosis - Treatment
C. Location of Therapy
D. Types of therapists
1. Counseling psychologist
2. Clinical psychologist (psychologist)
3. Psychiatrist
4. Psychoanalyst
E. Ethics in Therapy
II. Psychological Therapies
A. Psychodynamic Therapies (Psychoanalysis)
1. Techniques of Psychoanalysis
a. Free Association
b. Word association
c. Freudian slips
d. Catharsis
e. Resistance
f. Dream Analysis
g. Transference/Countertransference
B. Humanist Therapies - Carl Rogers Client Centered Therapy
1. Unconditional Positive Regard
2. Genuineness
3. Nondirective therapy
C. Cognitive therapies - Ellis/Beck
D. Behavioral Therapies (Action Therapy)
a. Systematic desensitization
b. Implosion & Flooding
c. Aversion Therapy
d. Token economy
e. Contingency Management
III. Biomedical Therapies
A. Psychosurgery - Lobotomies
B. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
C. Chemotherapy (Drugs)
1. Antipsychotic
2. Antidepressant drugs disorders.
3. Antianxiety drugs
IV. Evaluating Therapy
1. The placebo effect
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 11: Abnormal Behavior & Therapy
11d Insight therapies
*11e Behavioral and biomedical therapies
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 17: Therapy (pg. 685-722)
The Psychological Therapies
Humanistic Therapies
Behavior Therapies
Cognitive Therapies
Group and Family Therapies
Evaluating Psychotherapies
Is Psychotherapy Effective?
The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies
Evaluating Alternative Therapies
Commonalities Among Psychotherapies
Culture and Values in Psychotherapies
Close-Up: A Consumer’s Guide to Psychotherapists
The Biomedical Therapies
Drug Therapies
Brain Stimulation
Preventing Psychological Disorders
Appendix A: Careers in Psychology
Preparing for a Career in Psychology
The Bachelor’s Degree
Postgraduate Degree
Subfields of Psyc9ohylogy
Preparing Early for Graduate Study in Psychology
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 17 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Discuss some ways that psychotherapy, biomedical therapy, and an eclectic approach
therapy differ.
2. Define psychoanalysis, and discuss the aims of this form of therapy.
3. Describe some of the methods used in psychoanalysis, and list some criticisms of this
form of
4. Contrast psychodynamic therapy and interpersonal therapy with traditional
5. Identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies, and describe the specific
goals and
techniques of Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
6. Explain how the basic assumption of behavior therapy differs from those of traditional
psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies.
7. Define counterconditioning, and describe the techniques used in exposure therapies
aversive conditioning.
8. State the main premise of therapy based on operant conditioning principles, and
describe the
views of proponents and critics of behavior modification.
9. Contrast cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy, and give some examples of
cognitive therapy for depression.
10. Discuss the rationale and benefits of group therapy, including family therapy.
11. Explain why clients tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
12. Give some reasons why clinicians tend to overestimate the effectiveness of
psychotherapy, and
describe two phenomena that contribute to clients’ and clinicians’ misperceptions in this
13. Describe the importance of outcome studies in judging the effectiveness of the
and discuss some of these findings.
14. Summarize the findings on which psychotherapies are most effective for specific
15. Evaluate the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
(EMDR) and
light exposure therapies.
16. Describe the three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies.
17. Discuss the role of values and cultural differences in the therapeutic process.
18. Define psychopharmacology, and explain how double-blind studies help researchers
evaluate a
drug’s effectiveness.
19. Describe the characteristics of antipsychotic drugs, and discuss their use in treating
20. Describe the characteristics of antianxiety drugs.
21. Describe the characteristics of antidepressant drugs, and discuss their use in treating
22. Describe the use and effects of mood-stabilizing medications.
23. Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy in treating severe depression, and
discuss some
possible alternatives to ECT.
24. Summarize the history of the psychosurgical procedure known as a lobotomy, and
discuss the
use of psychosurgery today.
25. Explain the rationale of preventive mental health programs.
Cumulative Test #3
Prologue, Chapters 1-17, Appendix A and Chapter 3 p. 95-113
(To help prepare for the AP Exam in May, a cumulative test is given at the end of the
first, second,
and third quarters, and prior to the AP Exam. Each test will cover all the material from
beginning of the school year to that point.)
Social Psychology Unit
Unit Length: 9-11 days
Unit Objectives: (Class notes only. See below for Textbook Objectives)
The student will be able to:
1. Explain attribution theory including personal attribution and situational attribution.
2. Explain the fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, self-serving bias, and
3. Give an example of attribution error.
4. Define attitudes.
5. Describe the elements of attitude change.
6. Explain how elements of the communicator, communication, target and the situation
attitudinal change.
7. Explain how to people resist attitude change.
8. Define conformity and obedience.
9. Explain Asch’s initial study and follow up studies on conformity.
10. Explain Milgram’s study on obedience.
11. Define group dynamics.
12. Compare and contrast task versus social groups and inclusive and exclusive groups.
13. Define leadership.
14. Explain leadership theories and styles of leaders.
15. Explain group influences on human behavior.
16. Describe the different types of crowds.
17. Explain cultural influences including personal space and culture shock as well as the
role of gender
within a culture.
18. Explain Allport’s theory of rumors.
19. Describe the influence of fads, fashions, and mass hysteria on a culture.
20. Compare and contrast prejudice and discrimination.
21. Define altruism.
22. Explain bystander intervention and the psychology of helping.
Class Notes:
I. Social Thinking
A. Attribution Theory
1. Definition
a. Personal Attribution (dispositional attribution)
b. Situational Attribution
c. Fundamental Attribution Error
d. Actor-Observer Bias
e. Self-Serving Bias
f. Self-handicapping
2. Effects of Attribution
B. Attitudes
1. Definition of Attitudes
2. Attitude Change (Persuasion and Compliance)
a. Elements of Attitude Change
(1) Communicator
(2) Communication
(3) Target
(4) Situation
b. Attitude Change Diagram
Communicator ---- Communication ---- Target ---- Situation
(1) Factors involving the communicator
(2) Factors involving the communications
(a) One versus two sided arguments
(b) Primacy effect
(c) Stating one's conclusion
(d) Novelty of information
(e) Foot in the door
(f) Low ball
(g) Door in the face
(h) That’s Not All
(i) Hard to get
(j) Fear arousal
(k) Sleeper effect
(3) Factors effecting the target
(a) Commitment
(b) Reciprocity
(c) Personality factors
i) Self esteem
ii) Intelligence
iii) Sex
(d) Cognitive Dissonance
(e) Forewarned
(f) Role Playing
c. Resisting Persuasion
(1) Refute the argument
(2) Reject the argument
(3) Reject the source
(4) Distort the message
(a) Confirmation Bias
II. Social Influence
A. Conformity and Obedience
1. Conformity
a. Solomon Asch Study
b. Conditions that Strengthen or Weaken Conformity
(1) Group size
(2) Unanimity
(3) Social status
(4) Cohesiveness
(5) Ambiguity
(6) Prior commitment
(7) Culture
(8) Gender
c. Public compliance versus private acceptance
(1) Public compliance
(2) Private acceptance
d. Reasons for Conformity
(1) normative social influence
(2) informational social influence
2. Obedience
a. Milgram’s study
B. Group Influence (Group Dynamics)
1. Group Dynamics
2. Group Classifications
a. Task versus Interaction Oriented Groups
(1) Task group
(2) Interaction group
b. Inclusive versus Exclusive Groups
(1) Inclusive group
(2) Exclusive groups
3. Leadership
a. Leadership
b. Characteristics of Leaders
(1) Great Person Theory
(2) Causing or History Causing Theory
c. Leadership Styles
(1) Authoritarian Style
(2) Democratic Style
(3) Laissez-faire Style
4. Group Communications
5. Group Influence
a. Social Facilitation
b. Social Loafing
c. Deindividuation
d. Risky shift
e. Group Polarization
f. Group Think
6. Crowds
a. Casual crowd
b. Conventional Crowd
c. Expressive Crowd
d. Acting Crowd
C. Cultural Influence
1. Cultural Norms
a. Personal space
b. Culture shock
2. Gender Roles
D. Collective Behavior
1. Rumors
a. Allport's Phases of Rumors
(1) Sharpening
(2) Leveling
(3) Assimilation
2. Fads and Crazes
a. Fads
b. Craze
3. Mass Hysteria
III. Social Relations
A. Prejudice and Discrimination
1. Prejudice
2. Discrimination
3. Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup
B. Altruism
1. Kitty Genovese story
2. Bystander Intervention
3. Psychology of helping
a. social exchange theory
b. superordinate goals
Major Class Activities and Assignments:
Psyk-Trek CD Modules:
Weiten, Wayne. (2003). Psyk.trek 2.0: A multimedia introduction to psychology [CD].
Stamford, CT:
Wadsworth. ISBN: 0534275133 (* items are used every year. Other items are used as
time permits.)
Unit 12: Social Psychology
*12a Attribution processes
12b Theories of love
12c Attitude change
12d Prejudice
Simulation 10 Social judgment
Textbook Usage:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 18: Social Psychology (pg. 723-772)
Social Thinking
Attributing Behaviors to Persons or to Situations
Attitudes and Actions
Close-Up: Abu-Ghraib Prison: An “Atrocity-Producing Situation?”
Social Influence
Conformity and Obedience
Group Influence
Social Relations
Close-Up: Automatic Prejudice
Close-Up: Parallels Between Smoking Effects and Media Violence Effects
Chapter 3: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity (pg. 119-137)
Cultural Influences
Variations Across Cultures
Variation Over Time
Culture and the Self
Culture and Child-Rearing
Developmental Similarities Across Groups
Gender Development
Gender Similarities and Differences
The Nature of Gender
The Nurture of Gender
Relationships on Nature and Nurture
Textbook Objectives:
Myers, David G. (2007). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth. ISBN: 0-7167-2830-3
Chapter 18 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
1. Describe the three main focuses of social psychology.
2. Contrast dispositional and situational attributions, and explain how the fundamental
error can affect our analysis of behavior.
3. Define attitude.
4. Describe the conditions under which attitudes can affect actions.
5. Explain how the foot-in-the-door phenomenon, role-playing, and cognitive dissonance
illustrate the influence of actions on attitudes.
6. Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it.
7. Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and
informational social influence.
8. Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which
was highest.
9. Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our
susceptibility to
social influence.
10. Describe the conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social
social loafing, or deindividuation.
11. Discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink.
12. Identify the characteristic common to minority positions that sway majorities.
13. Identify the three components of prejudice.
14. Contrast overt and subtle forms of prejudice, and give examples of each.
15. Discuss the social factors that contribute to prejudice.
16. Explain how scapegoating illustrates the emotional component of prejudice.
17. Cite four ways that cognitive processes help create and maintain prejudice.
18. Explain how psychology’s definition of aggression differs from everyday usage.
19. Describe three levels of biological influences on aggression.
20. Outline four psychological triggers of aggression.
21. Discuss the effects of violent video games on social attitudes and behavior.
22. Explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict.
23. Describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on
24. Describe the effect of physical arousal on passionate love, and identify two predictors
enduring companionate love.
25. Define altruism, and give an example.
26. Describe the steps in the decision-making process involved in bystander intervention.
27. Explain altruistic behavior from the perspective of social exchange theory and social
28. Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social
Chapter 3 Objectives:
The student will be able to:
19. Discuss the survival benefits of culture.
20. Describe some ways that cultures differ.
21. Explain why changes in the human gene pool cannot account for culture change over
22. Identify some ways a primarily individualist culture differs from a primarily
collectivist culture,
and compare their effects on personal identity.
23. Describe some ways that child-rearing differs in individualist and collectivist
24. Describe some ways that humans are similar, despite their cultural differences.
25. Identify some biological and psychological differences between males and females.
26. Summarize the gender gap in aggression.
27. Describe some gender differences in social power.
28. Discuss gender differences in connectedness, or the ability to “tend and befriend.”
29. Explain how biological sex is determined, and describe the role of sex hormones in
development and gender differences.
30. Discuss the relative importance of environment on the development of gender roles,
describe two theories of gender-typing.
31. Describe the biopsychosocial approach to development.
AP Psychology Exam Preparation
Review Test #1 - Quarter 3 Units and Social Psychology
Review Test #2 - Quarter 2 Units
Review Test #3 - Quarter 1 Units
Cumulative Test #4 - Prologue, Chapters 1-18, and Appendix A
2004 AP Psychology Exam
Semester II Final Exam
Stranger Paper Lab
Purpose: This lab is designed to start the student observing other's behavior and open
them up to
the field of psychology.
Placement: O-LEC:I
Materials: None
Time Frame: 5-10 minutes
1. Tell students to look around the room and find someone they do not know or
know very little about but they can easily observe.
2. During the class hour over the next few days the students are to observe this
person and take brief notes about them. Student are to note clothing, body
language, general behavior and start to draw some conclusions what this person is
like based on these observations.
3. Inform students they should be careful the other student does not notice they are
watching them.
a. explain how behavior changes when one knows they are being watched
4. At the conclusion of the observation period students are to write a paper (2 pages)
on this other person based on their observations and conclusions. Stress to the
students the conclusions must be based on observable behavior.
5. Grading the papers is facilitated if students hands in their notes on the person with
the paper.
6. The boundary breaking lab, if done, provides an ample opportunity for the student
to observe the other student and draw conclusions.
Brain Project
Project Requirements:
Create a model of the brain including the parts and areas of the brain listed below.
Give a creative presentation detailing the function of the * items of the brain listed below.
(5-6 minutes
The grading for the project will entail:
50% - an evaluation using the form below by the other students in the class.
50% - an evaluation using the form below by the teacher.
Parts of the Brain Areas of the Brain
*Thalamus Frontal Lobe
*Hypothalamus Temporal Lobe
*Hippocampus Occipital Lobe
*Cerebellum Parietal Lobe
*Reticular Activating System *Wernicke's Area
*Pons *Broca's Area
*Spinal Cord
*Corpus Callosum
Brain Report Evaluation Form
Name(s) of Group Members:
Rate the group's report on a scale of 1 to 10 with 1 being the lowest ranking and 10 being
the highest ranking.
Please circle the number of your ranking.
Informative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Understandable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Creative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Brain Model 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Overall Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Total Points:
Activities for Developmental Psychology Unit
I. Ask three children (under 10) of different ages the following questions:
A. Where does the sun go at night?
B. Could you become a girl (boy) if you want to?
C. What are clouds made of?
D. How old do you think I am?
E. Where do dreams come from?
F. Does your brother (sister) have any brothers (sisters)?
G. Does your mother have a mother?
H. Were your parents ever little?
I. What makes the leaves fall off the trees?
J. Billy got mad while he has eating. He threw one glass on the floor and broke it. John
was helping
his mother clean cupboards. He accidently tripped and broke six glasses he was carrying.
was more naughty - Billy or John?
II. Draw a time line which represents your life up to this point. Mark in important events
in your life on it.
BE SPECIFIC! If you need to, ask your parents for information on your early childhood.
Then continue
the line in a different color ink to reflect how you expect your life to progress through
adulthood. Write
significant events in the order in which you expect them to occur. Respond to the
following questions
based on your timeline:
A. What does your time line tell you about yourself?
B. How different would you be if you could have changed one or two events along your
C. How flexible or fixed does your future seem do be?
III. What is your earliest childhood memory?
A. How old were you at the time?
B. Why do you think you recall this as your first memory?
IV. You Are a Parent: For each of the following listed below:
A. State your immediate or natural response as a parent then,
B. Explain a more ideal response.
1. Three year old child is terrified of thunder.
2. Four year old screams and carries on in a doctor's office while getting a shot.
3. Five year old wets his/her bed.
4. Four year old cries on the first day of nursery school and won't let the parent leave.
5. Six year old won't share his/her toys when a friend comes to play.
6. Five year old starts to beat up a playmate.
7. Six year old lies about spilling juice on the rug.
8. Five year old says he/she hates their younger sister.
V. Describe how you think the ideal child should be and/or behave at the following ages:
A. 2 years old
B. 7 years old
C. 12 years old
D. 17 years old
VI. Adolescence is seen by many as a time for experimentation and discovery about
oneself. Assuming
you agree with this:
A. As a parent, what limits or rules would you place on your teenager?
B. What conflicts do you foresee?
C. How much of a penalty would you impose on your child for breaking the rules?
D. How much of a penalty would you allow your child to pay for their experimenting?
VII. Define maturity:
A. Possible criteria - age
1. leaving home
2. earning a living
3. marriage
4. bearing children
VIII. Ask three seniors (over the age of 65) the following questions regarding being a
A. Did you attend high school? Did you want to? What kinds of subjects did you study?
kind of homework did you have? Did most teenagers in your neighborhood go to high
B. How many hours per week did you work (not including school-related work)? How
much did
you contribute to the family income? Did you want to go to work?
C. What were your clothes like? Were you concerned about fashion?
D. Did you date in high school? At what age were you allowed to date? What did you
typically do
on a date?
E. How did you and your friends spend your free time?
F. What was your most nagging problem as a teenager?
G. What do you see as the main difference between the teenagers of today and yourself as
IX. Parenting:
A. In your own words describe what being a parent entails.
B. In light of this project and your answers explain how your views on parenting may
have changed.
Who Am I Paper
This assignment is designed to help you develop a clearer image of who you are and help
you discover what you
want. Perhaps this assignment will bring you closer to fulfilling your own need to
The search for a personal identity is the life task of a teenager. When you look in the
mirror you often ask
yourself: "Who Am I?" You are not sure what you want to be, but you usually know what
you don't want to be.
You fear being a nobody, an imitation of an image. You become disobedient and
rebellious, not so much to
defy your parents as to experience your identity and independence.
Your task is tremendous, and your time is short. Too much is happening at once. There
are bodily spurts,
psychic urges, social clumsiness, and painful self consciousness. Mass media dramatize
your predicaments -sweeten your breath, straighten your teeth, wash away your dandruff, shorten your nose,
elevate your height, add
weight, lose flab, build muscles and correct posture. Therefore, it is good to analyze,
"Who Am I?"
To give you some help, below are listed, in no order of importance, just ideas to toss
around as your see fit.
1. Identify and the identity crisis, self-esteem, self-respect. Your basic sense of self your
sense of direction
and purpose, your acceptance of self, feelings of security in dealings with others.
2. Your feelings of independence.
3. What you believe to be good and genuine in the world and in yourself.
4. Your ideals. The factors that determine your ideals.
5. Your philosophy of life.
6. Your friendships and feelings of belonging. The qualities/values you have in common
with family/friends.
7. Your goals - Where I Am? Where Am I Going?
8. Is there anything about yourself you don't like and can possibly change?
9. If you recognize some pattern of behavior that seems to consistently cause problems in
your relations with
others, what can you do about it? These may include your emotions, attitudes, motives,
10. What makes your life meaningful to you now? What would make it meaningful in the
11. What are you special needs now? Your feelings? Your thoughts?
12. You might like to end your paper with writing your own epitaph that you would like
to appear when death
comes your way.
Please remember the preceding are only suggestions to consider. Your goal is to
determine and write, "Who
Am I?", physically, emotionally, socially, intellectually, and psychologically.
Within the course of your paper you should discuss ten psychological concepts you
learned this year and how
they relate to you and your life. The ten terms should be underlined, defined, and applied
to who you are.
The paper should be a minimum of 4 pages in length. It should be typed or neatly
handwritten. The paper will
be due on .
Abnormal Psychology Report
Possible Topics
# Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
# Mood Disorders
# Anxiety Disorders
# Somatoform Disorders
# Dissociative Disorders
# Personality Disorders
Report Format
The General Classification
General Background Information (History of the Classification - if pertinent)
Subdivisions of the Classification
The Individual Disorders
Symptoms of the disorder
Other Information on the disorder
Possible causes of the disorder
Treatment(s) of the disorder
Typed - 1 inch margins double space
Minimum 5 pages
You are to use a minimum of four references. Only two can be the internet unless they
are online texts and
journals. Your sources cannot be older than 10 years.
Include references and sources