* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Organic Molecules
Document related concepts
Organic Molecules Notes Organic Molecules • There are 4 organic molecules that make up all of the life on Earth. • These molecules are: nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids • Organic molecules contain carbon and hydrogen chemically linked to one another in long chains, with carbon as the backbone and hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms. Nucleic Acid • The nucleic acids are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). • They make the proteins that are present in almost every structure and perform almost every function in your body. DNA & RNA • DNA • Shape of a twisted ladder. • The backbones consists of alternating molecules of phosphate and sugar. • More stable • Usually stays in the nucleus • Your genes are made up of DNA, and each gene provides the code for making a specific protein • RNA • Many different shapes, depending on its function. • The backbones consists of alternating molecules of phosphate and sugar • Less stable • Can travel throughout the cell. • RNA helps DNA to make these proteins. Proteins • Proteins make up many structures and perform many functions in the human body: – Build and repair tissue – Form hormones and enzymes – Energy • Protein is made of C, H, O & N. • In our cells, protein synthesis takes place in the ribosomes. Protein/Amino Acids • The monomer or building block or base unit of protein are amino acids. • There are 20 amino acids that make up proteins. • The position of the N is what differentiates one amino acid from another. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates comprise the largest number of organic molecules in organisms. • Carbohydrates are made of C, H & O. • The monomer or building block or base unit of carbohydrates are monosaccharides or sugars. • The simplest sugar is glucose, a molecule used to provide fuel for many types of organisms, including humans. Carbohydrates and Food • The sugars found in foods include: fructose in fruits, galactose in milk, maltose in vegetables and sucrose in table sugar. • Sugars can be identified by their common ending “ose.” • The starch found in whole grains and vegetables is a complex carbohydrate made of chains of simpler glucose molecules. • Our body contains enzymes which breaks down carbohydrates in the food you eat into glucose, which your cells can use as energy. Lipids • Lipids are more commonly known as fats. • Lipids are made of C,H & O. • Lipids contain the most energy of all the organic compounds. • When your body burns lipids for fuel, you get more energy than if you burned the other organic molecules. • The monomer or building block or base unit of lipids are fatty acids and glycerol. Lipids in Our Body • Lipids/fats perform many functions in our body: – phospholipids and cholesterol, both important components of cell membranes; – waxes that provide plants and animals with a protective layer; – hormones that signal different functions in your body – vitamins that aid in different cell functions – steroids which are important in a number of physiological processes. Fats from animals tend to be more viscous than fats from plants.