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May 23rd, 2014
Paige Ardave 0312395
Kaycee Caughman 0310486
Roxann Bernal 0309587
Taylor Olson 0300470
Victor Cruz 0262009
Emily DeForge 0301050
Sierra Brooks 0313006
Gene Frequency: the ratio of a particular allele to the total of all other
alleles of the same gene in a given population
Mutation is Gene frequency-Mutation is a weak force for changing allele
frequencies, but is a strong force for introducing new alleles.
Natural Selection: the process whereby organisms better adapted to their
environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its
action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be
the main process that brings about evolution. “Survival of the fittest”
Methods (Natural Selection)
• Select 7 dots of colored dots, 40 each color
• Place 20 of each set on mat (mix them up if you prefer)
• Predator from another group comes over and picks dots off of your
environment for one minute
• Next count the survivors and calculate the surviving couples
• For the next generation add in the amount of off spring (surviving pairs
x 2) along with your survivors.
• Second generation predator uses two hands for one minute to pick
• The third generation there will be two predators using one hand each
to pick dots.
• During fourth generation you will change the environment mat to a
new environment scheme
• For example ours went from the Halloween mat to the green shoe
• Make sure to be careful when transferring all dot from the
environments so you can receive accurate information/data
• The fourth generation will have two predators that will use both hands
for one minute
• The fifth generation will have a natural disaster occur.
• Make sure that along the way you are keeping track of your traits to
make sure they have not been killed off and that you are adding the
proper amount of dots each time to the environment
Methods (Gene Frequency)
Beads were randomly selected for 6
successive filial generations.
• Each successive generation was
artificially decreased in order to introduce
• We killed off the ww organism in order to
show it being decreased.
• The black beads were added/killing off
in order to represent the disease
spreading rapidly within the
Results for Gene
Generations 1,2 and 3:
Results for Natural
Generations 4,5, and 6 with environment changes:
Natural Selection Methods
This was our first
environment, Generations
Purple background with
colorful Halloween
Colors: Purple, green,
yellow, orange and black
This was our second
Generations 3-6
Yellow/Lime green
background with colorful
halloween pictures.
Colors: Green, yellow,
purple, pink,
orange,black, dark and
light blue
Gene Frequency methods
white beads,
beads, RR
beads mixed
in with the
Black beads
Gene Frequency vs. Natural Selection
Negative results
from the
environment due
to predators
results based
Gene Frequency with
This a mutation bar graph in
percentages. BB were the
black beads, which were
the mutation. In the first
generation the mutation
was very small, only at
about 4%. Through each
generation the mutation
escalates all the way to
32% in the fifth generation.
We ran out of time to
complete the 6th
generation, but my guess is
that the mutation would
have increased about 5%.
As you can see, as the trait
BB increases, the other traits
decrease further and
further in the next
Gene frequency proves that recessive genes die off and
are/or less present whereas dominant genes are stronger
for future generations.
Natural selection proves that the species itself, and its
tactfulness and ability to adapt to new environments are
a big part of survival but predator and natural
occurrences are equal factors. The more aggressive the
predator was, the quicker the different species were
picked off, however when the natural disasters occurred,
both the species and the predators were affected.
In natural selection, survival of the fittest is essential, the
strong genes are the ones that survive and are passed on
through generations more present in future generations