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Transcript
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE
1. The Republic Expands
Military
a.
All men age 17-46, with a minimum amount of
property were required to serve during times of war
Organized into units called Legions
i.
ii.
1.
Commanders called Centurions
a.
iii.
Officers who command 100 men
Highly disciplined and well trained
b. The Punic Wars
Series of 3 wars that lasted over 80 years
1st Punic War
i.
ii.
1.
2.
Mostly a naval war
Carthage will have the upper hand initially but Rome
will come back and defeat Carthage
ii. 2nd Punic War
1.
Hannibal
a.
b.
Carthage general
who led an army
and war elephants
across the Pyrenees
and the Alps and
invaded Italy
Dominated the
country side
2. Publius Cornelius
Scipio
a.
b.
c.
Led Roman army to
Carthage
Attacked the city
Forced Hannibal to
return to Carthage
3. Plain of Zama
a.
b.
Both Carthage and Roman forces met there
Scipio was able to defeat Hannibal and his troops
4. Rome will strip Carthage of its navy and land held
in Spain
5. Did not destroy the city
iv. 3rd Punic War
1.
2.
Carthage begins to build ships again
Rome declares war on Carthage
a.
b.
Laid siege to the city for 3 years
Enslaved its citizens and completely destroyed the city
2. Problems in the Late Republic
Social Unrest
a.
i.
Gracchi Brothers
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tiberius and Gaius
Tried to help soldiers
by redistributing
public land to small
farmers
Angered the wealthy
elite
Senate urged a mob
to kill the brothers
b. Military in Politics
Gaius Marius
i.
1.
2.
3.
Elected to the office
of Consul
Eliminated property
restrictions and
began to accept
anyone who wanted
to join the army
Armies would become
loyal to a general;
became a tool for
political power
ii. Civil War
1.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
a.
b.
Marius and
supporters tried to
prevent Sulla from
taking military
command
Led to a civil war
c. Sulla was victorious and became a dictator
i.
ii.
iii.
Executed those who opposed him
Carried out reforms aimed at protecting the power
of the Senate
Voluntarily retired
3. Rome Becomes an Empire
The First Triumvirate (rule of 3 men)
a.
Made up of 3 men
i.
1.
2.
3.
Julius Caesar, Gnaius Pompey and Licinius Crassus
Caesar and Pomepy were both successful military
leaders
Took over the Republic in 60 B.C.
Julius Caesar
Gnaius Pompey
ii. Civil War
1.
2.
Caesar and Pompey faced off in battle
Caesar defeats Pompey and takes full control of the
Republic
iii. Caesar
1.
2.
Will be made Dictator for Life
Reforms
a.
b.
3.
Gave citizenship to the providences
Gave public lands to the veterans
Assassinated by a group of Senators on March 15,
44 B.C. also known as the Ides of March
b. The Second Triumvirate
Composed of: Octavian (Caesar’s son and heir),
Marc Antony (a loyal officer) and Lepidus (a high
priest)
Octavian and Antony divided the empire in half
i.
ii.
1.
2.
Octavian took the West
Antony took the East
Octavian
Marc Antony
iii. Civil War
1.
2.
3.
Antony and Cleopatra wanted to Expand
Octavian defeats them at a naval battle of Actium in
31 B.C.
Antony and Cleopatra kill themselves
iv. Octavian is left with sole power
c. Octavian
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Called himself “princeps” or first citizen to avoid the
title of emperor
Senate gave him the title Augustus or “revered one”
Head of State for 40 years
Divided rule between himself and the Senate
d. Augustan Age
Foreign Affairs
i.
1.
2.
Tried to bring peace to the West in Gaul and Spain
Tried to push Rome’s borders to the Danube River
ii. Rome
1.
2.
3.
Created a police force and fire brigade
Began Building programs
Moral and religious reform
iii. Augustus died in 14 A.D.
4. Julio-Claudians
Relatives of Julius
Caesar ruled for 54
years after Augustus
died
Emperors
a.
b.
Tiberius
i.
1.
A good soldier and
competent
administration
ii. Caligula
1.
Brutal and mentally unstable
iii. Nero
1.
2.
3.
4.
Last of the Julio-Claudian Emperors
Burned down Rome
Killed his mother
Committed suicide in 68 A.D.
Nero
Caligula
5. The Good Emperors
Started in 96 A.D.
5 emperors who
governed for almost a
century
Almost all were
outside of Rome
Grew the empire
Trajan
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
i.
Height of expansion
occurred under him
f. Hadrian
Succeeded Trajan
Believed Rome was too large
i.
ii.
1.
2.
Built fortifications on the frontiers to protect against
invasion
Built walls in Northern Britain (73 miles long)
Hadrian
Hadrian’s Wall
6. The Pax Romana
Period of peace from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.
Called Pax Romana or Roman Peace
Essential traits
a.
b.
c.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Stable government
Strong legal system
Widespread trade
Peace