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6.2: The Roman
The Republic Collapses
 Gap b/t rich & poor widened
 Urban poor made up ¼ the population
 Military chaos
 A period of civil war resulted
(a group of leaders that shared
control of the gov’t)
Caesar, Crassus, &Pompey
(died 53 BC)
(died 48 BC)
 Julius Caesar appointed dictator for life
 Assassinated by Brutus & Cassius
– March 15, 44 BC
 Civil War after death of Julius Caesar
 2nd Triumvirate
– Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus
 Lepidus retired
 Octavian & Mark Antony became rivals
– Octavian defeated Antony & Cleopatra
at the naval battle of Actium in 31 BC
Octavian is given the title
“Augustus” meaning exalted
 Rome became an empire
Pax Romana: with 1 ruler
a period of peace and
 Through the silk roads –
prosperity throughout
most important roadsthe Roman Empire,
lasting from 27B.C. to
180 A.D
 Women had more freedom
than most women would
have until the 19th century
 Family at the heart of
Roman society
 Gravitas: the Roman
values of discipline,
strength, loyalty
Sources of Wealth during Pax
 Bustling trade across the empire & with
other civilizations
 Wealth from conquered lands (gold &
 Healthy farms w/ plenty of grain to feed
Sometimes strong
healthy male slaves
were forced to
become Gladiators
To distract & control the
masses, the gov’t provided
free games, races, mock
battles, & gladiator games