Civil War and the New Empire Within a few years after Caesar’s death, two men had divided the Roman world between them – Octavian, Caesar’s heir and grandnephew, taking the west and Mark Antony, Caesar’s ally and assistant, the east. But the empire of the Romans, large as it was, was still too small for two masters, and Octavian and Antony eventually came into conflict. Antony allied himself with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. Antony ends up falling deeply in love with Cleopatra, just as Caesar did when he visited Egypt. At the Battle of Actium in Greece in 31 B.C., Octavian’s forces smashed the army and navy of Antony and Cleopatra. Both fled to Egypt. Octavian, at the age of 32, stood supreme over the Roman world. The civil wars had ended. With the victories of Octavian, peace finally settled on the Roman world. Although civil conflict still erupted occasionally, the new imperial state Octavian constructed experienced remarkable stability for the next two hundred years. The Romans imposed their peace on the largest empire established in ancient times. As a sign of his new power, Octavian took the name Augustus, or “honored one.” The month of August is named after this powerful ruler and general who helped to build Rome into a huge empire. Under Augustus, life throughout the empire underwent great changes. Most important, his rule began the Pax Romana. Pax Romana is Latin for “Roman peace.” During the Pax Romana, which lasted about 200 years, goods moved freely with Rome’s far-reaching borders. During this period of peace Augustus ordered the building of new roads, buildings, and water systems. Augustus also worked to create a single system of government and money system throughout the empire. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why did civil war follow Caesar’s death? Who won this civil war? How did Cleopatra take part in the civil war? What was Octavian’s name as ruler? Explain the importance of Pax Romana?