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Transcript
Name: ________________________
AP Biology
Date: _______________
2012/2013 AP Biology Midterm Review Sheet
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In-Class Midterm Date: Wednesday, January 24, 2013 – In the LIBRARY – 11:45-1:45
Format: 45-50 Multiple Choice Questions, two essays (one lab related, one content related) – 2 hours
o Be prepared to work at this fast pace… which is actually slower than the AP Exam pace!!
o Some questions will require calculations (as on the AP test)
Bring # 2 pencils & a blue or black pen. 4-function calculator. No reference materials may be used.
The midterm will count under Criterion C.
Use this review sheet to help guide you during your preparation for this exam.
Use prior quizzes and tests, as well as in class activities and labs to help you review
Unit 1: Chemistry of Life
Chapter 3 – Water
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What types of bonds do you find within a water molecule? Between water molecules?
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What atom in water is very electronegative?
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Properties: excellent solvent, high heat capacity—moderating influence, evaporative cooling, ice floats, strong cohesion &
surface tension, strong adhesion
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PH scale 0-14
acid = 0-(7) high [H+], low [OH-]
neutral = 7
base (7)-14, low [H+], high [OH-]
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Buffers
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Water Lab
Chapter 4/5 – Carbon / Organic Molecules
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What are some properties of the carbon (organic) atom?
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Functional Groups: structural formulas, properties, and examples of molecules they are found in:
o Amino, central carbonyl, terminal carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, methyl, phosphate, sulfhydryl
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What is the difference between dehydration/condensation synthesis and hydrolysis?
o C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H22O11 (disaccharide) + H2O
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Know macromolecule monomers vs. polymers, bonds, and examples:
o Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, sugars, starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin,
glycosidic linkage bonds
o Proteins - structure, transport, defense, enzymes, amino acids, dipeptides, polypeptides, proteins, peptide bonds,
1°, 2°, 3°, 4° levels of structure
o Lipids - energy storage, structure, hormones, groups: triglycerides (fats, saturated C-C, unsaturated/kinky C=C),
phospholipids, steroids, (cholesterol, sex hormones), ester linkage bonds
o Nucleic acids- genetic information storage, structure: nucleotides (pentose sugar, nitrogenous base (A,T,C,G,U),
negatively charged phosphate groups, DNA, RNA, hydrogen bonds between bases, covalent bonds in backbone
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Organic molecules lab
Chapter 8 - Enzymes/ Metabolism
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What do the first and second laws of thermodynamics state?
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What is the structure and purpose of ATP?
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What happens when high-energy phosphate bonds are broken in ATP?
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Δ G Reaction (Change in Energy of Reaction) = G products (Energy of Products) – G reactants (Energy of Reactants)
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Define: Catabolism, Hydrolysis, Exergonic, Negative Delta G
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What macromolecule are enzymes made of? What do they do to a substrate? Can they be reused? What do enzymes do
to the activation energy of a reaction?
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Function: metabolic catalysts, lock & key model, induced fit model, “-ase”, substrate specific
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Factors affecting enzyme action: pH, temperature, coenzymes, cofactors, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration
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Activators (ex: allosteric) vs. inhibitors (ex: competitive or non-competitive)
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Allosteric site vs. active site
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Negative feedback loop / feedback inhibition
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Enzyme Lab– Catecholase – What factors affect the activity of catecholase?
1
Unit 2: The Cell
Chapter 6 – Cell structure/function
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What are the names, functions, and locations of the following organelles?
o Nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, SER, RER, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, chloroplast, lysosome, peroxisome,
cytoskeleton, microtubules, flagella, cilia, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, centrosome, centrioles, large
central vacuole / tonoplast, vesicles, vacuole, cell wall, cell junctions (desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions,
plasmodesmata)
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Explain some differences & similarities between plant, animal (Eukaryotic) and bacterial (Prokaryotic) cells:
o eukaryotes: nucleus & membrane-bound organelles
o plants: cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole
o animals: lysosomes, centrioles
o prokaryotes (bacteria): naked circular DNA, ribosomes, no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, sometimes
cell wall (peptidoglycans)
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Amazing Cells lab
Chapter 7 - Membranes
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Explain Passive Transport (Diffusion, Osmosis, & Facilitated Diffusion) vs. Active Transport
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Define: Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic
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Define turgid plant cell, plasmolysed plant cell, lysed animal cell
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Vesicular transport: exocytosis, endocytosis (phagocytosis, pinocytosis)
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Know the functions of the components of a cell membrane / phospholipid bilayer/ fluid mosaic model:
o Phosopholipids - hydrophilic heads, hydrophobic tails (amphipathic)
o proteins – amphipathic, integral & transmembrane, ion channel, transport, electron transfer, peripheral,
o glycoproteins - recognition, receptor, adhesion
o cholesterol - fluidity
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What types of materials can pass through a selectively permeable membrane and why?
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What types of materials cannot pass through a selectively permeable membrane and why?
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What types of cells have membranes and what are they composed of?
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Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells Placed in solutions of different Molarities (M)
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Potato lab – Determining the molarity of a cell based on how it behaves in solution (increase/decrease mass) – use
formula to determine water potential  = s + p where s = -iCRT.
Unit 3: Cellular Processes
Chapter 9 – Cellular Respiration
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Net Equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
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Aerobic Respiration: Know the locations, reactants, products of:
o Glycolysis
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1 glucose  2 pyruvate, net 2 ATP(substrate-level phosphorylation), 2 NADH
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all aerobic & anaerobic organisms, most widespread pathway, cytosol
o Kreb’s Cycle / Citric Acid Cycle
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PreKrebs: 2 pyruvate  2 acetyl CoA + 2 NADH
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2 rounds of Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation), 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
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Aerobic only, matrix of mitochondria
o Electron Transport Chain / Oxidative Phosphorylation / Chemiosmosis)
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NADH & FADH2 donate electrons to ETC, cytochrome carrier proteins in membrane,
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pump H+ ions to intermembrane space, H+ flow down concentration gradient through ATP synthase,
phosphorylate ADP ATP, O2 is final electron acceptor
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yield: 36-38 ATP
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Aerobic only, folded inner membrane of mitochondria aka cristae (lots of surface area)
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Anaerobic Respiration: Know the locations, reactants, products of:
o Lactic Acid Fermentation (mammalian muscle cells, bacteria), no CO2 produced
o Alcohol Fermentation (bacteria, yeast), CO2 produced
o Both start with Glycolysis (the most widespread pathway)
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Lab: Cellular Respiration of Peas/Seeds
Chapter 10 – Photosynthesis
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Net Equation: Light + 6 H2O + 6 CO2 --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
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LEO the “RED-OX” says GER: Redox reactions: Lose Electrons = Oxidation, Gain Electrons = Reduction
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Know the locations, reactants and products of:
o Light Reactions AKA Light Dependent Reactions (“Nerf Ball Game”)
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How is chemiosmosis associated with the light reactions?
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Chloroplast: thylakoid membrane, grana
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Noncyclic photophosphorylation
2
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• photosystem II (P680), photolysis, primary electron acceptor, electron transport chain, ADP 
ATP (phosphorylation)
• photosystem I (P700), primary electron acceptor, electron transport chain, NADP -->NADPH
o Calvin Cycle AKA Dark Reactions AKA Light – Independent Reactions
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Chloroplast: stroma
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Carbon fixation: inorganic CO2 + RuBP -- enzyme Rubisco  organic PGA (3C)
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6 “turns” = 6 CO2 input = 1 glucose (6C) output
Photosynthesis Lab: Floating leaf disks (What caused the leaf disks to float/sink?)
Chapter 11- Cell Communication
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Signal transduction pathway: reception, transduction, response
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Cell junctions (gap junctions, plasmodesmata) vs. Cell-to-cell recognition (glycoproteins)
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Cell signaling projects
Unit 4: From Gene to Protein
Chapter 12 – Mitosis
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What is the purpose of mitosis? (clones, asexual reproduction, growth, repair)
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Haploid vs. diploid
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Know specifics about Interphase (G1, S, G2), Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis (animal cleavage
furrow vs. plant cell plate)
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Purpose of Checkpoints, mutation prevention, no signal at G1 checkpoint / “restriction point”  G0 – nerves, muscle cells
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Chromosomes vs. chromatids, centromere, complementary strands
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cell division triggered by growth (surface to volume ratio), density dependent inhibition
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What are the differences between mitosis in plant cells vs. animal cells?
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How do bacteria asexually reproduce?
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Cancer = unregulated cell division
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Henrietta Lacks
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Mitosis lab – stages of mitosis in onion root cells
Chapter 13 – Meiosis
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What is the purpose of meiosis? “reduction division”, haploid gamete (sex cell) production, genetic variation &
recombination
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Know specifics about Interphase, PI, MI, AI, TI / Cytokinesis I, Interkinesis, PII, MII, AII, TII/ Cytokinesis II.
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What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis? What are the differences between Meiosis I vs. Meiosis II?
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What is chromatin?
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Interphase I, Prophase I (synapsis, tetrad, chiasmata, crossing over), Metaphase I (independent assortment), Anaphase I
(separates homologous pairs), Telophase I (diploid 2n --> haploid 1n)
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Interphase II / Interkinesis (rest), Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II (separates sister chromatids), Telophase II
(haploid 1n-->haploid 1n)
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Meiosis lab – crossing over in Sordaria
Chapter 14 - Mendelian Genetics ***
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Using Punnett squares to determine genotypes of parents and offspring
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Testcross
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locus, gene, allele, homologous pairs, dominant, recessive, phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, monohybrid
cross, dihybrid cross; P, F1, F2 generations,
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Multiple alleles : Blood type determination (ex: cross: I AIB x ii)
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Incomplete dominance (pink flowers) vs. Codominance (roan cow/blood types)
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Use a pedigree to determine the inheritance pattern of an autosomal Mendelian trait.
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Law of Segregation: random segregation of alleles to separate gametes
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Law of Independent Assortment: chromosomes segregate separately from other nonhomologous chromosomes
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Epistasis
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Pleiotropy
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Polygenic inheritance
***Also chapters 2-7 from alternate text.
Chapter 15 - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance ***
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List some examples of sex-linked (X-linked) traits.
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Use a pedigree to determine the inheritance pattern of a sex-linked trait.
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As the distance between two linked genes increases, what happens to the crossover frequency?
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Use crossover frequencies (map units) to determine a linkage map of the locations of genes on a chromosome.
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Fruit flies, Chi square analysis  (o-e)2 / e
***Also chapters 2-7 from alternate text.
3
Chapter 16 - DNA & DNA Replication
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Griffith – Bacterial Transformation (+ Avery, McCarthy, MacLeod’s contribution)
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Hershey and Chase – T2 bacteriophage (Viral Replication)
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Meselson and Stahl – Semiconservative DNA replication
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Chargaff: A-T, C-G
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Watson and Crick – DNA Double Helix shape
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What does a DNA nucleotide consist of? “ “ “ RNA nucleotide consist of?
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Explain the steps in semiconservative DNA replication/ (know the enzymes!) template DNA strand, DNA polymerase,
leading strand, lagging strand, helicase, replication fork, single stranded binding proteins, DNA ligase, Okazaki fragments,
RNA primase, RNA primer, new DNA made 5’  3, new nucleotides added onto the free 3’ end
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Mutations: deletion, base pair substitution, insertion, frame shift
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DNA from the beginning internet activity
Chapter 17 - Protein Synthesis
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Beadle and Tatum: one-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis, one-gene-one-polypeptide hypothesis
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How are the terms codon and anticodon related to each other?
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Converting Genetic “Languages”: 3’ DNA Template 5’  5’ mRNA 3’  3’ tRNA 5’  Amino Acid Sequence
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Transcription (RNA polymerase makes 5’ 3’ pre-mRNA from 3’ 5’ DNA template strand, in nucleus of euk/cytosol of
prok)
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RNA Processing (introns spliced out with snRNPs, exons will be expressed , 5’ cap, poly-A tail, in nucleus of eukaryotes
only)
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Translation (mRNA codon matches with tRNA anticodon, rRNA, ribosome, small ribosomal subunit, large ribosomal
subunit, P site, A site, wobble, stop codon, start codon (Met), initiation, elongation, termination, in cytoplasm)
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How does a firefly glow?
Chapter 18 – Gene Regulation
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(Bacterio)phages – capsids + genome
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Viral reproduction: lytic (host cell bursts), lysogenic (phage DNA circularizes into prophage), retrovirus (reverse
transcription)
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Bacteria: transformation, transduction, conjugation, plasmid
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Operons (regulatory gene, repressor protein, promoter, RNA polymerase, operator, structural genes)
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Inducible enzyme: lac operon, when lactose present binds to repressor & induces it to release DNA
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Repressible enzyme: trp operon, when tryptophan (corepressor) present binds to repressor & triggers it to bind to DNA
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Eukaryotic genes – enhancers, control elements, activators
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NOVA regulating genes activity
Chapter 20 – DNA Technology
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Genetic engineering: plasmids, restriction enzymes, sticky / blunt ends, DNA ligase
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (primers, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, heat break H bonds, cool form H bonds)
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Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (shorter DNA fragments (-) migrate towards (+) end faster than larger fragments)
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Transformation lab - pGLO
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Electrophoresis lab – Restriction enzymes
4