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Transcript
CHAPTER 16
Social Behavior
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
To demonstrate mastery of this chapter, the student should be able to:
Define “social psychology.”
Describe the research that indicates that humans have a need to affiliate.
Describe the social comparison theory.
List and describe four factors that affect interpersonal attraction.
Define “homogamy.”
Explain how self-disclosure is important in the process of getting to know someone.
Explain how overdisclosure can affect the same process.
7. Describe Rubin’s studies of romantic love.
8. Discuss the differences between loving and liking. Include the term “mutual
absorption” in your discussion.
9. Define “evolutionary psychology.”
10. Discuss the possible evolution of male and female mate selection.
11. Define the following terms and describe the studies related to these terms:
a. social role
b. ascribed role
c. achieved role
d. role conflict
e. group structure
f. group cohesiveness
g. in-groups
h. out-groups
i. status
j. norm
12. Explain what attribution theory is and the difference between internal and external
causes of behavior.
13. Explain the fundamental attributional error and define the term “actor-observer bias.”
14. Briefly discuss the research on the double standard in attribution of male and female
success.
15. Define the term “social influence.”
16. Describe Asch’s experiment on conformity and information in the text about factors
that influence conformity in any situation, not just the experiment.
17. Define “groupthink” and explain how it may contribute to poor decision-making.
Describe six ways to prevent groupthink.
18. Explain how group sanctions and unanimity affect conformity.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
19. Describe Milgram’s study of obedience and identify the factors that affect the degree
of obedience.
The following objective is related to material in the “Discovering Psychology” section of
the text.
20. According to Halonen, 1986, people tend to obey legitimate authority long after that
person’s demands have become unreasonable. If one person in a group begins to
resist orders, would that help others to disobey? Support your answer from Milgram’s
study.
21. Describe the following methods of compliance:
a. foot-in-the-door
b. door-in-the-face
c. low-ball technique
22. What is one of the main benefits of knowing these strategies for gaining compliance?
23. Describe the process of assertiveness training, including the term “self-assertion.”
24. Describe how a person can learn to be more assertive using rehearsal, role-playing,
overlearning, and the broken record technique.
25. Define “attitude.”
26. Describe the belief, emotional, and action components of an attitude.
27. List, describe, and give examples of six ways in which attitudes are acquired.
28. Explain why people may exhibit discrepancies between attitudes and behavior.
29. Differentiate between reference groups and membership groups.
30. Define “persuasion” and list nine conditions of persuasion that can be applied to bring
about attitude change.
31. Present an overview of cognitive dissonance theory, indicate its influence on attitude
formation, and describe the effect of justification on dissonance.
32. List two types of forced attitude change.
33. Describe the three techniques used in brainwashing.
34. Explain how beliefs may unfreeze, change, and refreeze and indicate how permanent
the attitude changes brought about by brainwashing are.
35. Describe how cults are able to recruit, convert, and retain their members.
36. Define and differentiate “prejudice” and “discrimination” and describe the
development of prejudice. Include the terms “scapegoating,” “personal prejudice,”
and “group prejudice” in your discussion.
37. What are the characteristics of the prejudice-prone personality?
38. Describe the characteristic beliefs (including egocentrism and dogmatism) and
childhood experiences of the authoritarian personality. Include how these beliefs are
measured.
39. Present the major characteristics of social stereotypes and indicate how they may lead
to intergroup conflicts.
40. Define “symbolic prejudice.”
41. Briefly describe the role of dehumanization in promoting violent conflicts.
42. Explain how status inequalities may lead to the development of stereotypes and how
equal-status contact may reduce intergroup tension. Give an example of each
situation.
43. Explain how superordinate goals can reduce conflict and hostility.
44. Explain how a “jigsaw” classroom utilizes superordinate goals and helps reduce
prejudice. Define the term “mutual interdependence.”
45. Describe the relationship between aggression and each of the following:
a. instincts
b. biology
c. frustration (include frustration-aggression hypothesis and aversive stimuli)
d. aggression cues (include the weapons effect)
e. social learning
46. With respect to the effects of violence on television:
a. summarize the relationship between television violence and real life
b. explain how television violence may teach antisocial actions, disinhibit dangerous
impulses, and desensitize a person to violence
47. List eleven characteristics of students who are violence prone.
48. Explain how parents can buffer the impact of television violence on their children and
ways to minimize anger, aggression, and violence in their children.
49. Define “prosocial behavior.”
50. Trace the progress of an individual through the four decision points that must be
passed before helping behavior is given.
51. Describe what is meant by bystander apathy and diffusion of responsibility, describe
the bystander apathy/intervention studies, and indicate how the presence of other
people can influence this apathy.
52. Define the terms “empathic arousal” and “empathy-helping relationship” and how
they are related to bystander intervention.
53. Briefly note how a person can “de-victimize” oneself.
54. Briefly discuss the impact of positive psychology on prosocial behaviors along with
some examples of heroic acts.
55. Define “multiculturalism.”
56. List nine ways to “break the prejudice habit.”