First Semester Honors Chemistry Exam Review (2011-2012) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Define: A chemical, applied research, an atom Give examples of chemical and physical changes Noble gases are in Group 18, and are best known because they are… A state of matter in which a material has no definite shape but has a definite volume is the ____ state. Give examples of pure substances What are uniform and non-uniform compositions called? Give examples of each Give examples of heterogeneous mixtures The horizontal rows on the periodic table are called…. How can you determine if a substance is a metal? What are the properties of a nonmetal? A metalloid? What are the steps in the scientific method? What is a theory? The SI base units for length and time are…. The standard base unit for mass is … What is the relationship between the mass m of a material, its volume V, and its density D? These values were recorded as the mass of products when a chemical reaction was carried out three separate times: 8.83 g; 8.84 g; 8.82 g. The mass of products from that reaction is 8.60 g. Precise? Accurate? Both? What is the number of significant figures in the measurement 0.000 305 kg? How many significant figures in each? 0.0020 mm, 0.0402 mm, 30.00 mm, 402.10 mm Using a metric ruler with 1 mm divisions, the sides of a rectangular piece of plywood were measured as 3.54 cm and 4.85 cm, which correspond to an area of 17.1690 cm2. What is the answer to the correct number of significant figures? When 64.4 is divided by 2.00, the correct number of significant figures in the result is… Three samples of 1.12 g, 1.8 g, and 1.562 g are mixed together. The combined mass of the three samples, expressed to the correct number of significant figures, would be recorded as … When 5.7 m is divided by 2 s, the quotient is correctly reported as… The product of 13 cm and 5.7 cm is correctly reported as … What is the ratio of oxygen to carbon when 32 g of oxygen combine with 12 g of carbon? What is Dalton's atomic theory? Dalton's atomic theory agrees with modern atomic theory except for what? The deflection of cathode rays in Thomson's experiments was evidence of the ____ nature of electrons. Whose series of experiments identified the nucleus of the atom? What happened to the alpha particles in Rutherford's experiments? A nuclear particle that has about the same mass as a proton, but with no electrical charge, is called a(n) What is the smallest unit of an element that can exist either alone or in combination with other such particles of the same or different elements? What are isotopes are atoms? How many protons, electrons and neutons are in Chlorine? Carbon? Calcium? 34. For electromagnetic radiation, What is c (the speed of light) equal to? 35. Because c, the speed of electromagnetic radiation, is a constant, what is the relationship between the wavelength and frequency? 36. What is the distance between two successive peaks on adjacent waves? 37. What must happen for an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state? 38. A spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent which orbital (s)? 39. How many orbital shapes are in the first energy level? Second? Third? Fourth? What are they? 40. Both copper (atomic number 29) and chromium (atomic number 24) appear to break the pattern in the order of filling the 3d and 4s orbitals. This change in pattern is expressed by…. 41. What is the element with electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 ? 1s2 2s2 2p2 ? 42. The atomic number of silicon is… 43. What is the electron configuration for nitrogen, atomic number 7? 44. Mendeleev noticed that properties of elements usually repeated at regular intervals when the elements were arranged in order of increasing… 45. Mendeleev predicted that the spaces in his periodic table represented… 46. What principle states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers? 47. Elements in a group or column in the periodic table can be expected to have similar… 48. What is the horizontal row of blocks in the periodic table called? 49. What is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom called? 50. What is the trend of electronegativity on the periodic table? 51. What is a positive ion? A negative ion? 52. What are Valence electrons? 53. How many valence electrons are in Group 1, Group 2, etc… 54. The electrostatic attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons permits two atoms to be held together by a(n)… 55. What is the bond called if two covalently bonded atoms are identical? 56. If the atoms that share electrons have an unequal attraction for the electrons, what is the bond called? 57. What are shared in a covalent bond? 58. In the three molecules, O2, HCl, and F2, what atom would have a partial negative charge? 59. Give an example of a molecular formula? 60. What is bond length? 61. In a molecule of fluorine, the two shared electrons give each fluorine atom how many electron(s) in the outer energy level? 62. The shiny appearance of a metal is most closely related to what? 63. If a material can be shaped or extended by physical pressure, such as hammering, which property does the material have? 64. What are the electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond called? 65. Why are nonpolar covalent bonds not common 66. The greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms, the greater the percentage of ____ in the bond. 67. What group of elements satisfies the octet rule without forming compounds? 68. In drawing a Lewis structure, each nonmetal atom except hydrogen should be surrounded by how many electrons? 69. What do you need to know to draw a Lewis structure? 70. Multiple covalent bonds may occur in atoms that contain carbon, nitrogen, or… 71. Explain the valence electrons in metals. 72. Malleability and ductility are characteristic of substances with what type of bonds? 73. What does the 218 in polonium-218 represent? 74. What equation shows the correct relationship between mass and energy? 75. Reactions that affect the nucleus of an atom are called______. 76. What is the process that changes the identity and number of protons in a nucleus 77. During radioactive decay, what does the nucleus disintegrate into? 78. Which of the forms of radiation has the greatest penetrating power? 79. What are alpha particles? 80. What are Beta particles? 81. What are Gamma rays? 82. What is a half-life? 83. Which form of radiation travels fastest? 84. Which form of radiation has the lowest penetrating ability? 85. What do all radioactive nuclides undergo? 86. What are radioactive tracers used for? 87. What is the heat energy produced by a reactor is used for? 88. Can fusion reactions be used in power plants? 89. What does a chemical formula indicate? 90. How many atoms of fluorine are present in a molecule of carbon tetrafluoride, CF4? 91. Name the compound Al2S3. 92. is the formula for silicon dioxide? 93. What is the formula for dinitrogen trioxide?