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REVIEW - Evolution and Natural Selection Unit
Define evolution.
Change in a species over time
2. List the 3 different types of evidence scientists use to support the theory of evolution.
Fossil Record
i. Anatomical (homologous, analogous, vestigial structures)
ii. Developmental (embryology)
iii. Molecular homologies(Biochemical evidenced)
3. Review Darwin’s work and contributions:
What did he do? Studied medicine, religion, went on a voyage
How did he get there? HMS Beagle
What did he see? Fossils, finches, mainly on Galapogos Islands
What did it mean? Theory of evolution by natural selection
4. What is a phylogenic tree? What does it show?
Diagram showing evolutionary history: divergent evolution
5. Darwin’s theory of natural selection is also known as _survival of the fittest_______ and is the
process by which __evolution occurs____
6. What is the fossil record used for and how is it done?
Determine age/ history
Radioactive dating (carbon 14) Relative dating (oldest fossils deep
in earth newest close to surface
7. How were fossils formed?
1. Calcium replaced
2. Burial in sediment
3. Mud, ocean floor, tar, swamp
8. What is an embryologist studying?
Early organisms
9. Distinguish among these terms with a definition and examples.
Vestigia lparts with no useful purpose ex. Whales pelvis, snake leg bones, human tail bone
similar structure/ancestry, different functions ex. Human arm bone, whale fin,
cat forelimb, bat wing
Analogous similar function, not structure/not ancestry ex. Bird wings, butterfly wings
10. Contrast the following terms:
Divergent evolution & convergent evolution
Divergent evolution- different species come from one
Convergent evolution- different species become more similar over time
Punctuated equilibrium & gradualism
Punctuated equilibrium – does not happen
Gradualism – how evolution happens, gradually over a long time
Genetic drift and gene flow
Genetic drift – Change in allele frequency due to sampling error
Gene flow – when the allele frequency of a population is altered
Bottleneck effect and founder effect
Bottleneck – population is drastically reduced in size due to a natural disaster
Founder – When a few individuals from a large population found a new isolated population
11. When different species share similar biochemicals, what can you conclude about the species?
Greater # of similar amino acids, more closely related. Greater # of differences more distantly
12. What is speciation? How does it occur? Why does it occur?
Speciation- formation of new species; happens by adaptation natural selection, mutation
13. Define species.
Organisms that breed and make fertile offspring
14. Think about the peppered moths example of industrial melanism. Explain how this illustrates natural
selection and adaptation.
Adaptation by natural selection
15. List the 5 things that the Hardy-Weinberg equations assume
1. The population is very large
2. There is no migration
3. There are no net mutations
4. Mating is random
5. There is no natural selection
16. What kind of traits can you inherit? Genetic or acquired? Genetic
17. What is a common ancestor?
One who has similar biochemical evidence
18. What are the 4 factors that cause a change in allele frequency in a population?
1. Natural selection survival of the fittest
2. Genetic drift – change in allele frequency due to sampling error
3. Gene Flow – migration when the allele frequency of a population is altered by individuals
moving inot or out of a population
4. Mutation – a change in your DNA
19. What is selective breeding? When humans intentionally mate two animals in an attempt to produce
offspring with desirable characteristics
**This review is NOT comprehensive. Study Notes, WS/labs, Text Ch.13 etc.