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Transcript
4-8-13
DARWIN’S MECHANISM
2 OBSERVATIONS
-
Overpopulation
o Populations have potential to produce more offspring than the environment can support
Individual Variation
o Individuals in a population vary in many heritable traits
FROM THOSE OBSERVATIONS A BRILLIANT INERENCE!
Differential reproductive success
Those individuals with traits best suited to the local environment generally leave a larger share of
surviving fertile offspring (Fitness)
This is the Definition of: NATURAL SELECTION
WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR EVOLUTION TO OCCUR?
1. TIME!
2. VARIATION IN A POPULATION
MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION
Evolution is defined as:
1. change in allele fx
2. In a given population
3. Over time
AT LEAST 4 WAYS WE CAN DOCUMENT THE CHANGING OF ALLELE FREQUENCIES
NATURAL SELECTION
-
Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms
WALLACE 1860’S
-
Individuals whose characteristics are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive
and reproduce
The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in the
characteriscs of a population over generations.
NON RANDOM MATING
-
Mates Selection for specific characteristics
Almost always the female
Behavioral, physical or chemical
GENETIC DRIFT – SEWALL WRIGHT 1920’S
-
Essentially a subset of the genes in a population get isolated from the complete gene pool
THE RESULT IS LOSS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY
The new population (even if rebuilt) has to only have the genes from the founders
2 ways genetic drift can occur
-
Bottleneck effect
Founder effect
GENE FLOW
-
The movement of Individuals or gametes between populations
Can alter allele freq. in a population
Tends to reduce differences between populations
Humans are the best example of this!
ALL OF THESE INTERACT
To have effects on populations
EVOLUTION CAN ALTER VARIATION IN A POPULATION IN TREE WAYS
-
Stabilizing selection:
Directional selection
Disruptive selection