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AP Psychology Exam: Review Packet My Study Check list: Commit information from notes to memory, don’t just look at them Read ALL of my note cards Relearn, or learn (if you didn’t the first time), the following names and terms Take practice exams provided by Mrs. Bost and/or Mrs. Hunnicutt Ask for clarification of anything & everything I don’t understand Realize good scores take effort, they don’t just appear Put in the necessary effort!!!!! Exam Tips Multiple Choice: 70 minutes (42 seconds per question) – You have to know you stuff!!! • No blanks!!!!! (You are NOT penalized for guessing.) Free Response: 50 minutes (approximately 25 minutes per essay) No blanks!!!!! - guess if you must, but NO circular definitions!!!!!!! Write in mini-paragraphs NEVER leave a blank ALWAYS give definitions AND applications Underline key words Load up your FR with psychology vocabulary (pretend your reader doesn’t know anything about psychology – like Tom Cruise!) Watch Your TIME! GOOD LUCK! Exam Breakdown MC: 66 ⅔ %: The percentages below relate to the number of MC questions you will see on each topic. Study accordingly. 2-4% history 6-8% methods and approaches 8-10% biological bases of behavior 7-9% sensation and perception 2-4% states of consciousness 7-9% learning 8-10% cognition 7-9% motivation and emotion 7-9% developmental psychology 6-8% personality 5-7% testing and individual differences 7-9% abnormal psychology 5-7% treatment of psychological disorders 7-9% social psychology FRQs: 33 ⅓ %: Questions may be very broad or very specific. Study accordingly. A 90 or higher on the multiple choice will almost guarantee you a 5. The quality of your FR will be the tipping point. Review Sites Quick Reference: click a concept; get linked to an explanation http://academics.tjhsst.edu/psych/oldPsych/ Concept Maps: http://www.marshfield.k12.wi.us/faculty/veers/ap-powerpoints.cfm Practice Tests: http://www.ghaps.org/portengaa/Psych%20Weblinks.html Vocabulary Flash Cards: http://www.flashcardmachine.com/p/psych/terms Psychology Glossary: http://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx#i Who’s Who Among Psychology Names & Studies You MUST Know Researchers & Theorists 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Adler, Alfred Ainsworth, Mary Allport, Gordon Asch, Solomon Atkinson, John. Bacon, Sir Francis Bandura, Albert Text Unit Personality Development Personality Social Behavior Cognition Introduction Conditioning and learning Area of Study Basics of Study Psychodynamic (Neo-Freudian) Social creatures governed by social urges; struggle to overcome imperfections, drive for competence, completion and mastery of shortcomings Attachment Studied Bowlby’s idea of attachment in “Strange Situation” - to see how babies act when their mother returns after a brief separation Trait Theory Conformity Memory storage History /Origins of Psychology Observational learning Key Concepts Birth order Inferiority complex Striving for superiority compensation Style of life Fictional finalism Stranger Situation Separation Anxiety Attachment Types secure Anxious/insecure-ambivalent Anxious/insecure – avoidant Insecure-disorganized Study traits specific to most members of a culture; a person's unique qualities; traits so basic to personality all activity traced back to it; building blocks to personality; superficial -study the root of different types of prejudice Group of students at a table, all but one are actors who give the wrong answer about a third of the time when matching sizes of lines Social influences conformity Group pressure “Box Theory of Memory” L TM contains everything you know about the world; nearly limitless; more you know the easier to add new info “Father of Empiricism”, his demand for studying everything methodically led to today’s scientific methods - Angry boys severely punished at home so they suppressed misbehavior at home and were aggressive elsewhere --children watched an adult attack a blow up doll, others watched movie of this, a third watched a cartoon version; then good toys were taken from them and they were given the blow up doll, most imitated adult behavior even the cartoon Common traits Cardinal traits Individual traits Central traits Secondary traits Personal prejudice Group prejudice Long term memory Short term memory Sensory register Empiricism Scientific method Bobo Doll Study Aggression Modeling Social learning theory Social cognitive theory (update) Reciprocal determinism Self-efficacy 8. 9. Baumrind, Diana Beck, Aaron 10. Bem, Sandra Development Parenting Styles Stated that parents fall into one of three parenting styles, later added neglectful; recommended style is authoritative, it produces kids with higher self-esteem and confidence Therapies Cognitive Theory of Depression -distortions in thinking that are negative and selfdefeating Gender and Sexuality Androgyny 11. Binet, Alfred Intelligence Standard Tests 12. Bowlby, John Child Development Attachment Theory Biological Basis Brain & Language 13. Broca, Paul 14. Buss, David 15. Calkins, Mary 16. Cartwright, Rosalind Perspectives Evolutionary History of Psychology Self- Psychology States of Consciousness Dreams 17. Cattell, Raymond Personality Trait Theory 18. Chomsky, Noam Development Language 19. Darley, John & Latane, Bibb Social Psychology Prosocial Behavior Bern Sex Role Inventory which combined 20 masculine traits, 20 feminine and 20 neutral then asked people which traits applied to them With Theodore Simon, created the first intelligence test, test was originally intended to identify deficient students Attachment theory – emotional connectedness between parent & child, 4 characteristics of attachment = secure, proximity maintenance, safe haven, secure base, & separation distress French physician, discovered speech production center is in left frontal lobe, autopsy on “Tan” revealed damage in left frontal lobe Perspective that states we develop patterns of behaving that have adaptive qualities geared toward survival Wrote: The Murdered Next Door Was the first female PhD psy candidate, a student of Williams James at Harvard, but was denied her degree based on her gender Dreams are "feeling statements" and the emotional tone is a major clue to meaning; try to change dreams Identified 16 source traits (groups of surface traits) and graphs a picture of personalities to compare. Universal traits: Biological readiness to develop language; language patterns inborn The more potential helpers present the less likely people are to help Authoritarian Authoritative Indulgent/permissive Neglectful “Cognitive Triad” Selective perception Overgeneralization Al or-nothing thinking Androgyny Adaptability Binet-Simon test (1905) Mental Age Ratio IQ Norm His theory led to Ainsworth’s research Secure attachments Estrangement Broca’s area Expressive aphasia Famous patient= “Tan” Mating practices, Jealousy as a survival practice *A professor at UT – maybe he can help you “survive” college “Guest” student at Harvard 1892 (though she outscored her male counterparts) First female APA president Dreams = problem solving Lucid dreaming 16 PF test Surface traits Source traits Factor analysis Influenced five-factor model Language Acquisition Device Critical periods Universal grammar Nativist theory Bystander Effect/apathy Diffusion of Responsibility 20. Darwin, Charles 21. Descartes, Renee 22. Dement, William 23. Ebbinghaus, Herman 24. Ekman, Paul & Friesen, Wallace 25. Ellis, Albert 26. Erikson, Erik 27. Eysenck, Hans & Sybil 28. Festinger, Leon & Smith, Carl 29. Festinger, Leon 30. Freud, Anna Motivation and Emotion Introduction States of Consciousness Memory Motivation & Emotion Therapies Development Personality Expressing Emotions History/Origins of Psychology Dreams Memory Retention Emotion Cognitive Therapy Psychosocial Stages Trait Theorist Social Psychology Attitude Changes Social Behavior Social Comparison Theory Health, Stress, & Coping , Development Psychoanalysis Personality Disorders Emotional expressions are carryover from human evolution to communicate feelings that aid survival Influenced evolutionary perspective Cousin =Sir Francis Galton Believed the mind and body are separate entities, the mind controls the body, but the body can influence the otherwise rational mind, such as when people act out of passion Dualism Wake up volunteers every time they entered REM sleep which made "dream sleep" more urgent; when allowed to dream dreamt more after REM rebound REM sleep Memorized nonsense syllables and then waited various lengths before testing his memory, increased rehearsal leads to increased retention Studied remote tribe to discover if facial expressions are universal Universal facial expressions People become unhappy and develop self defeating habits because they have unrealistic of faulty beliefs REBT Life Span/Psychodynamic Elaborated on Freud’s theory, believed we face psychosocial crisis at each stage of life Forgetting curve Retention Curve Nonsense syllables Spacing Effect (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy) Identity Crisis Psychosocial Stages Crises & Basic Strengths Three-Factor Theory Personality is measured on Neuroticism, Extroversion & Psychoticism demenions, plus stable and unstable aspects of those three traits Personality types used Galen’s original terms Influenced McCrae & Costa College students perform boring task for a long time then lured others. Those paid more kept original view and those paid less changed attitude Cognitive dissonance theory Group members fill need for comparing own actions, feelings, opinions or abilities to others Social comparison Downward comparison Upward comparison Established importance of ego functions and defense mechanisms =Researched children in developmental stages and saw symptoms alike to adult disorders Expanded defense mechanisms 31. Freud, Sigmund 32. Friedman, Meyer & Rosenman, Ray Personality Health, Stress & Coping -Dreams Psychoanalytic Theory =psychoanalysis Cardiac Personality Dreams are based on internal conflicts and unconscious forces =personality dynamic system directed by three mental structures; core of personality formed in stages before age six =neurosis and hysteria caused by repressed memory, motives, conflict Study of heart problems, classified personalities and effects Iceberg (levels of consciousness) wish fulfillment psychodynamic theory dream symbols id, ego, superego Psychosexual stages Type A personalities Type B personalities Jenkins Activity Survey (measures Type-A personality) 33. Galton, Sir Francis 34. Garcia, John 35. Gardner, Howard Intelligence Motivation & Emotion Intelligence Differential Psychology Taste Aversion Multiple Intelligence Theory 36. Gazzaniga, Michael Biological Basis Brain 37. Gibson, Eleanor & Walk, R.D. Sensation & Perception Depth Perception 38. Gilligan, Carol 39. Goleman, Daniel 40. Hall, G. Stanley 41. Harlow, Harry Development Moral Dilemmas Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Intelligence/ Development Development Adolescence Attachments Believed intelligence runs in families & that breeding should be selective, cousin of Charles Darwin Applied statistical measures to the study of human differences Coined term “Nurture vs. Nature” Invented correlation method Introduced the use of questionnaires/surveys Eugenics Coyotes given lamb tainted with lithium chloride to become nauseated making them develop longtime distaste for tainted food Conditioning taste aversion Bait shyness Theorizes that there are eight different kinds of intelligence; mental languages used for thinking Brain efficiency has as much to do with intelligence as size; split brain Place 6-14 month infants in middle of visual cliff with choice of shallow and deep sides; most chose shallow Language Logic and math Visual/ spatial Music Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalistic Split brain research Depth perception Visual cliff (babies on edge) The ethic of caring about others; presents story to 1115 children; boys chose justice, girls best for all Critic of Kohlberg Moral development Relationships vs. justice Argued that non-cognitive skills can matter as much as I.Q. for workplace success Emotional Intelligence EQ, instead of IQ Examine childhood to view importance of inherited behavior; studied adolescents and effect on education Separate baby monkeys and replace surrogates some cold wire other soft fabric; infants chose soft Cloth surrogate mother Contact comfort First American psych lab Started APA President of APA Educational psychology 42. Heider, Fritz Social Behavior Perception 43. Hilgard, Ernest States of Consciousness Hypnosis 44. Hobson, John & McCarley, Robert States of Consciousness Dream Theories Health, Stress & Coping Life Events and stress 46. Horney, Karen Personality Psychodynamic Theories 47. Hull, Clark L. Conditioning & Learning Conditioning 48. Hubel , David & Wiesel, Torsten Sensation & Perception Visual Processing 49. James, William Motivation & Emotion Emotion Theories Conditioning & Learning Behaviorist Theories 45. Holmes, Thomas & Rahe, Richard 50. Jones, Mary Cover 51. Jung, Carl 52. Kagan, Jerome Personality Development 53. Kohlberg, Lawrence Development 54. Kohler, Wolfgang Conditioning & Learning Psychodynamic theories Temperament Moral Dilemmas Gestalt Psychology People attribute the behavior of others to their own perceptions; and that those perceptions could be determined either by specific situations or by long-held beliefs Asked hypnotized subjects to plunge one hand in painful ice bath; those told to feel no pain said they didn't; when asked if any part hurt other hand wrote yes Several parts of brain activated during REM sleep triggering sensations, motor commands, and memories along with visuals The first rating scale to estimate health hazards faced when stress builds individuals struggle with forbidden id drives that they fear they can't control in a hostile world; childhood Deprivation causes needs, needs cause drive, drives activate behavior which is survival Inserted electrodes into visual cortex of a cat, discovered feature detectors - specialized nerve cells in the brain that respond to stimuli, such as lines, edges, angle, or movement. Emotional feelings follow bodily arousal; criticized by Cannon-Bard Unconditioned fear of rabbits in a three year old by conditioning; pleasant stimulus with rabbit -People either shy and focused inward or outgoing focused outward --mask exists between ego and outside world; unconscious divided into personal, collective, universal Self serving bias Attribution Theory Stable vs. Unstable Global vs. Specific Internal vs. Situational factors Dissociation Split awareness Hidden observer Activation-synthesis model Social readjustment rating Life change units Basic anxiety Need for security Security mechanisms Womb envy Hull’s Drive Reduction model Need, desire = drive Feature detectors James-Lange theory Used classical conditioning First “ behavioral therapist” Basis of Wolpe’s work Analytic Theory Introvert & extrovert Persona Personal unconscious Collective unconscious Archetype Physical core of personality: sensitivity, irritability, distractibility ; modified by learning Temperament Nurture Learn moral values through thinking/reasoning; posed dilemmas to children of different ages and asked them what action should be taken with their reasoning Observed chimpanzees and their methods of problem solving Insight learning Moral development Preconventional; level Conventional level Postconventional level 55. Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth Development Death 56. Lewin, Kurt Social Psychology Gestalt Psychology 57. Locke, John Introduction History/Origins of psychology 58. Loftus, Elizabeth Memory Fallibility of Human Memory 59. Lorenz, Konrad Development Social Development 60. Marcia, James 61. Maslow, Abraham 62. Masters & Johnson 63. McClelland, David 64. McCrae, Robert & Costa, Paul Development Motivation & Emotion Personality Gender & Sexuality Motivation & Emotion Personality 65. Mead, Margaret Gender & Sexuality 66. Mesmer, Franz States of Consciousness Spent hours at bedside of terminally ill to observe five basic emotional reactions to impending death , currently stages are recognized as appearing in any order Behavior determined by persons situation; greatly impacted theories on group dynamics Borrowed Aristotle’s idea that we are a “blank slate” (tabula rasa) at birth Expert on human memory. Conducted extensive research on false memories such as “remembering being lost in the mall” Mother- goose following acquired during sensitive period when baby goose exposed to whatever is around Stages of Death & Dying denial/isolation anger bargaining depression Acceptance Interdependent of fate Task interdependence Blank slate argument Misinformation effect Fallibility of eye witness testimony False memories Imprinting Ethologist Fixed Action Patterns (FAP) Adolescent Psychosocial development Explored stage of identity crisis which includes exploration and commitment to variety of life domains Types of Identity Achievement Identity Achievement Identity Moratorium Identity Foreclosure Alienated Identity Identity Diffusion Humanistic theories -Some needs are more basic/powerful than others; higher needs expressed after satisfy biological needs --studied the lives of great people and other creative people to see how to live rich, creative satisfying life Sexual Responses Studied sexual intercourse and masturbation in 700 people; noticed phases Sexual Response Cycle Excitement phase Plateau phase Orgasm Resolution Predict the behavior of high and low achievers; compared occupations with scores on achievement test taken in college; scored high more risk jobs Need for achievement Need for power The Big 5 Personality Theory NEO Personality Inventory Anthropologist who observed Tchambuli people of New Guinea where gender roles are completely reversed from stereotypes Gender roles Believed he could cure disease with magnets but actually relied on power of suggestion Hypnosis “Animal Magnetism” Need for Achievement Trait Theory Gender Roles and Culture Hypnosis Hierarchy of needs-5 levels Basic/deficiency needs Growth/meta needs Self actualization Peak experiences Openness Conscientiousness Extroversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 67. Milgram, Stanley Social Behavior Obedience 68. Miller, George Memory Short Term Memory 69. Mischel, Walter Personality Traits 70. Murray, Henry Personality Projective Tests 71. Olds, James & Milner, Peter Biological Basis Brain Stimulation 72. Pavlov, Ivan 73. Penfield, Wilder 74. Piaget, Jean Conditioning & Learning Biological Basis Development Classical Conditioning Brain Mapping Cognitive Development 75. Pinel, Philippe & Dix, Dorthea Disorders & Therapy Biomedical Revolution 76. Rescorla, Robert Conditioning & Learning Classical Conditioning Learning experiment at Yale; every time learner gets something wrong the teacher must shock them and up the voltage; 65% of people went up to full voltage Earliest quantification of STM capacity, "magical number seven", He noticed memory span of young adults was around seven elements, called chunks Traits interact with situations to determine how people act Created the TAT. Laid the groundwork for McClelland’s research on Need for Achievement Brain stimulation reward (BSR) – direct electrical or chemical stimulation of brain regions is rewarding and can serve as an operant reinforcer. The stimulation activates the reward system and establishes response habits similar to those established by natural rewards such as food and water[ Rang a bell then immediately placed meat powder on dogs tongue causing reflex salivation, soon dogs began to salivate when they heard bell Obedience to authority Miller’s Magic number 7 +/- 2 Marshmallow Study “situationalism” - traitsituation interaction Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Electrical Brain Stimulation Contiguity model Neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned response stimulated the brain with electrical probes, create maps of the sensory and motor cortices of the brain Brain Mapping Motor homunculus Sensory homunculus -Children's cognitive skills progress through series of stages; observing own children solve thought problems =ideal way to guide intellectual development is to provide experiences slightly new and challenging; one step strategy Pinel, 1790s - transformed asylum practice in Paris, believed in humane treatment of patients Dix- followed Pinel’s ideas in the U.S. in the 1800s Humane treatment of patients Move mentally ill out of prisons Patients are not criminals Brain learns to expect the unconditioned stimulus will follow conditioned stimulus Contingency model Rescorla-Wagner Model Assimilation Accommodation Egocentrism sensorimotor stage Preoperational stage Concrete operational stage Formal operations stage 77. Rogers, Carl 78. Rorschach, Hermann 79. Rosenhan, David 80. Rosenthal, Robert & Jacobson, Lenore 81. Rotter, Julian 82. Schacter, Stanley 83. Seligman, Martin Personality Personality Psychological Disorders Social Psychology Humanistic Theories Personality Tests Psychiatric Labeling Attitude Personality Theories of Personality Motivation & motion Cognitive Theories of Emotion Health, Stress, & Coping and Learning Learned Helplessness, Béarnaise Sauce Theory Fully functioning person lives in harmony with deepest feelings and impulses; trust inner urges/intuition 10 standard inkblots, people describe what they see to identify personal conflicts and fantasies Rorschach Inkblots Test Projective test Committed themselves to mental hospitals with diagnosis schizophrenia then dropped pretense of illness but staff never noticed Pseudo-patients Danger of “diagnostic labeling” Administered fake tests to public school students that would predict the students who would have rapid growth though the names given to the teachers were randomly picked; teachers subconsciously helped them more and children really did perform better Self-fulfilling prophecy Pygmalion effect personality represents an interaction of the individual with his or her environment; relatively stable set of potentials for responding to situations in a particular way; changeable Locus of control (internal or external) People watch slapstick movie; 113 adrenaline, 1/3 placebo, 113 tranquilizer; attributed feelings to movie Schacter's Two factor theory Schacter’s Cognitive theory Studied marine POW who adapted to stress because captives said they would release at a certain date; after date passed he fell into depression and died Placed dogs in harnesses where they couldn't escape shocks, later put in “shuttle box” with shocks on one side; the dogs never attempted to alleviate shocks and go to other side Client Centered Therapy Unconditional Positive Regard Self image/ideal self Incongruence Encounter groups Learned helplessness Depression Biological preparedness Positive Psychology Positive psychologists seek "to make normal life more fulfilling", not simply to treat mental illness. 84. Selye, Hans Health, Stress & Coping Stress Series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress; first symptoms of any disease/trauma identical; body responds same to any stress General Adaptation Syndrome -alarm reaction -stage of resistance -stage of exhaustion 85. Skinner, B.F. 86. Spanos, Nicholas 87. Spearman, Charles Conditioning & Learning States of Consciousness Statistics & Intelligence Conditioning Hypnosis -Factor Analysis & Testing 88. Sperling, George Memory Cognitive Psychologist 89. Sperry, Roger Brain & Behavior Hemispheric Specialization 90. Sternberg, Robert Intelligence Theory of intelligence 91. Terman, Louis Intelligence Mentally Gifted 92. Thorndike, Edward Conditioning & Learning Operant Conditioning 93. Thurstone, L.L. Intelligence & Statistics Testing & Factor analysis 94. Titchener, Edward Introduction to Psychology Old Schools of Psychology 95. Tolman, Edward Conditioning & Learning Cognitive Learning 96. Vygotskty, Lev Development Sociocultural Theory Created apparatus to study conditioning in animals -formal study of schedules of reinforcement (when ran out of food pellets for his animals) Those hypnotized act knowingly; hypnotic acts are strongly tied to context; not altered consciousness Dissociated states Cognitive -pioneer of factor analysis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient -disparate cognitive test scores reflect only one general factor G-factor Matrix experiment - three rows of three letters, participants flashed letters then asked to recall them immediately afterwards, rapid decay of information in sensory register, Right and left brain hemispheres perform differently on tests of language, perception, music, etc Developed the “triarchic theory of intelligence” (analytic/academic, practical & creative) also the “triangular theory of love” (intimacy, passion and commitment) Selected 1,500 children with IQs of 140 or more and followed them into adulthood and corrected misconceptions about intelligence Acts that are reinforced tend to be repeated; probability of response altered by its effect Developed new factor analysis techniques with observable variables; no general factor but seven independent factors systematic exploration of the introspective and structuralist position; revealed its limitations, freeing the development of psychology from structuralist views Rats in maze unrewarded showed no sign of learning maze but when given food ran maze quickly Children actively seek to discover new principles which are guided by skillful tutors Skinner box Operant conditioning chamber Operant behavior +/- reinforcement +/- punishment Schedules of reinforcement Primary/secondary reinforcers Sperling's Matrix Iconic memory Split-brain operation Triarchic theory of intelligence Triangular theory of love IQ Law of effect Cat in the puzzle box Primary abilities Structuralism Experimental psychology Student of Wundt’s Latent learning Cognitive map Zone of proximal development Scaffolding 97. Wasburn, Margaret Floy Introduction History 98. Watson, John B. & Raynor, Rosalie Conditioning & Learning Conditioning 99. Wechsler, David 100. Wernicke, Carl Intelligence Testing Biological Basis Brain & Language 101. Wertheimer, Max Research Methods Gestalt Psychology 102. Wolpe, Joseph Therapies Self-Help 103. Whorf, Benjamin Lee Cognition, Language, & Creativity Language 104. Wundt, Wilhelm Research Methods History of Psychology 105. Yerkes, Robert & Dodson, john Motivation & Emotion Stimulus Drives Social Psychology Mere Exposure Effect Social Behavior Roles 106. Zajonc, Robert 107. Zimbardo, Phillip First woman to receive a PhD in psychology, (remember Mary Calkins was denied her degree), she was a student of Titchener’s at Cornell Univ. Experimented with infants like little Albert by simultaneously showing them a white rabbit with a loud noise to condition them to fear the rabbit Developed widely used intelligence tests; replaced mental IQs with dQs in calculating IQ German neurologist who discovered the area in the left temporal lobe responsible for the understanding of language. Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units Make a list of situations that make person anxious and use while performing relaxation techniques to overcome anxiety Language influenced by culture and reflects individuals daily actions; structure of language is structure of culture Set up FIRST psychology laboratory (1879); studied conscious experience; observed and measured various stimuli and looked inward to his reaction of stimulus (introspection) Task relatively simple best for arousal to be high when task is complex best for arousal to be low Studied social and cognitive processes. With Greg Markus, developed the Confluence Model (1977), which provided a mathematical model of the effect of birth order and family size on IQ scores Male students paid to serve as inmates or guards in a simulated prison; inmates grew defiant and guards unmerciful; became true Women in history!!! Classical conditioning Baby Albert Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Deviation IQ Wernicke’s area Receptive aphasia or Wernicke’s aphasia Gestalt Psychology Desensitization Hierarchy Theory also called… Linguistic Determinism Linguistic Relativity Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Stimulus Introspection Structuralism Yerkes-Dodson law Performance as a function of arousal level Social facilitation Mere exposure effect Confluence Model Power of the situation Roles AP Psychology Exam *** Top Concepts *** This list is a starting point. If you want to be successful on the AP exam, this is the minimum amount of information you MUST know, and even then it’s only a starting point. Your score WILL reflect your effort. Study your cards, notes, names and these terms. Tips for HOW to use this list: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Print the on-line version, located on my website, from home You use this list of terms and give the online version, with definitions, to a “helper” (friend/parent/sibling) THEN go through the terms one-by-one and provide your helper with the correct definition If you get the definition wrong, have your helper tell you so, then indicate (in pencil) on your sheet that you do not know the answer BEYOND RECOGNITION (having an idea isn’t good enough) Go all the way through the list and continue this process over a period of days until the paper no longer has any pencil marks Aaron Beck's view of depression absolute threshold achievement vs. aptitude tests action vs. resting potential acuity-vision Afferent Neurons vs. Efferent Neurons agonist vs. antagonist chemicals Ainsworth Strange Situation (Paradigm) Albert Bandura: view on learning & Bobo Doll experiment Albert Ellis - Rational Emotive Therapy (REBT) Alfred Adler - inferiority complex algorithm all-or-nothing law (all-or-none) of neural firing altruism American Psychological Association (APA) amnesia (anterograde & retrograde) androgyny apparent motion arousal Asch's conformity study (line segments) attachment attribution theory aversive conditioning (good or bad?) aversive conditions 25. Babinsky response 26. behavior as being adaptive 27. bell curve (normal distribution) 28. Benjamin Worf's theory of linguistic relativism/determinism 29. binocular disparity 30. blind spot 31. blood brain barrier 32. brain: what part do we share with animals? 33. brainstorming 34. Broca's area location & expressive aphasia 35. bystander intervention: influential factors 36. catharsis 37. Cannon's critique of James-Lange theory 38. Carl Rogers: person (client) centered therapy 39. Carol Gilligan's critique of Kohlberg's theory 40. Central vs. peripheral route to persuasion 41. chaining 42. chunking 43. classical conditioning vs. operant conditioning 44. Clever Hans experiment 45. cognitive dissonance 46. color blindness: kinds 47. complementary colors 48. conflicts: four kinds 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. control group Cooper's research on visual processing (using cats) correlation coefficients cortexes of the brain : major ones cross cultural studies cross sectional studies crystallized intelligence: define & relate to age CS-CR-UCS-UCR Daniel Goleman's views on emotional intelligence David McClelland's achievement motivation defense mechanisms: major ones deindividuation deinstitutionalization dendrites: function & relationship to NTs depression & types of antidepressants descriptive vs. inferential statistics determinism developmental psychology Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( purpose and limits) 68. difference threshold (jnd) 69. discrimination:(in learning theory and race relations) 70. disorders: major categories and types 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. displacement dissociative disorders divergent vs. convergent thinking dominant responses (aided by social facilitation) door-in the face-phenomenon Down's syndrome dream analysis drives Ebbinghaus' research on memory echoic memory effects of marijuana eidetic memory electroconvulsive shock therapy Elizabeth Loftus' research on eyewitness testimony endocrine organs and hormones secreted by them endorphins engram episodic memory equity theory of relationships Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development ethics of testing ethnocentrism expectancy theory (a.k.a mental set) experiment: be able to design one false consensus effect feature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & Wisel's research on visual processing 97. feature analysis 98. feral children 99. fetal alcohol syndrome: characteristics 100. figure - ground - phenomenon 101. Flynn effect 102. foot-in-the-door phenomenon 103. formal operations 104. fovea 105. Francis Galton's research 106. free association 107. frequency polygon 108. Freudian dream analysis: two types of content 109. Freud's stage of psychosexual development 110. frustration-aggression hypothesis 111. functional fixedness 112. fundamental attribution error 113. galvanic skin response (GRS) 114. ganglia 115. Gansfeld Procedure 116. Gate Control Theory of Pain 117. Generalizability of a study (use of inferential statistics) 118. genotype & phenotype 119. Gestalt theory 120. glial cells 121. group therapy (advantages of ) 122. groupthink 123. gustatory sense: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami 124. habituation 125. Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Response 126. Haptic memory 127. Harry Harlow's research with surrogate mothers 128. Hawthorne Effect 129. heuristics: major types 130. hierarchy of needs (Maslow) - put needs in order 131. high vs. low self-monitors 132. hindsight bias 133. histogram 134. homeostasis 135. Howard Gardner's view of multiple intelligence 136. hue: (British term for color) 137. hybrid 138. hypnosis: major theories of 139. hypothalamus: function & location 140. id, ego, superego 141. IDEAL (strategy for solving problems) 142. identical twin research 143. identification vs. internalization (Freudian terms) 144. illusory correlation 145. imaging techniques: PET, CAT, MRI, FMRI 146. imprinting 147. incentives 148. independent/dependent variables 149. induced motion 150. inductive vs. deductive reasoning 151. industrial (organizational) psychology 152. ingroup and outgroup bias 153. inner ear - vestibular sense 154. instinct, FAP & Konrad Lorenz 155. instrumental learning vs. operant conditioning 156. Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) 157. intelligence tests (major kinds used) 158. interference (proactive vs. retroactive) 159. internal consistency reliability 160. internalization 161. intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation 162. James-Lange theory of emotions 163. John Garcia's ideas on the limits of conditioning 164. just-world phenomenon 165. Karen Horney's views on development 166. kinesthetics 167. Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning 168. Kubler Ross' stages of dying 169. L-dopa 170. learning curve 171. limbic system: structures and function 172. linear perspective 173. lithium (bi-polar disorders) 174. localization of sound (How? & Why two ears?) 175. long term potentiation 176. longitudinal study 177. loss of information from short term memory 178. major neurotransmitters 179. Martin Seligman's "learned helplessness" 180. measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode 181. measures of variability: range and standard deviation 182. memory: kinds (sensory, short-term, long-term) 183. mental age 184. mental set 185. metacognition 186. method of loci 187. milieu therapy 188. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 189. misinformation effect 190. modeling 191. monocular vs. binocular depth cues 192. motion aftereffect 193. motion parallax 194. myelin sheath: where and purpose? 195. narcissism 196. nature vs. nurture controversy 197. nervous system: major parts 198. neuron: basic parts 199. neurotransmitters: major kinds 200. newborn baby reflexes 201. next-in-line-effect 202. normative social influence 203. norms 204. novelty preference 205. obesity (role of hypothalamus) 206. Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD) 207. occipital lobe 208. Oedipal conflict 209. one eye problem - what you can’t do well with one eye 210. operationalizing a definition (operational definition) 211. opponent-process theory of emotions 212. opponent-process theory of vision (afterimages) 213. optic disc 214. optic nerve 215. Optimistic Explanatory Style 216. pancreas 217. panic attacks & best treatment 218. paradoxical sleep: why is REM called this? 219. paresis 220. perceptual constancy (size, color, shape) 221. perceptual set 222. personal space 223. perspectives in psychology (major ones) 224. phenylketonuria (PKU) 225. phi phenomenon 226. phonemes vs. morphemes 227. photoreceptors 228. Piaget's stages of cognitive development 229. pineal gland (function and role in sleep) 230. pitch 231. pituitary gland 232. plasticity 233. population (in regard to sampling) 234. positive and negative symptoms 235. positive reinforcement 236. post traumatic stress disorder 237. Premack principle 238. primacy effect 239. primary vs. secondary reinforcers 240. prisoner’s dilemma 241. projective tests: TAT & Rorschach 242. prosocial behavior: what is it and give an example 243. proximity (effects on relationships) 244. prototype 245. punishment & it’s effectiveness 246. random sample 247. representative sample 248. Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy 249. reality principle (function of ego) 250. recessive vs. dominant genes 251. reflex arc 252. reliability vs. validity in testing 253. REM sleep 254. repression 255. reticular formation: relate to sleep, arousal, attention 256. retinal disparity (a.k.a. binocular disparity) 257. Robert Rescorla's findings on conditioning 258. rods and cones (structures & differences) 259. rooting reflex 260. sample 261. scatterplot/scattergrams & correlations 262. schedules of reinforcement: 5 types & effectiveness 263. schema 264. schizophrenia 265. script 266. selective attention 267. self-efficacy 268. self-fulfilling prophecy 269. self-serving bias 270. semantic memory 271. serial position effect 272. set point 273. sexual characteristics (primary vs. secondary) 274. sexual identity vs. gender identity 275. shaping 276. signal detection theory 277. sleep disorders: major kinds 278. sleeper effect 279. social cognitive theory 280. social exchange theory 281. social facilitation 282. social loafing 283. social trap 284. somatoform disorders: major kinds 285. somatosensory cortex: location & function 286. stages of learning (acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, etc.) 287. standard deviation 288. Stanley Milgram's experiement with obedience 289. Stanley Schachter's Two Factor Theory 290. stereotype 291. stimulus generalization 292. stranger anxiety 293. syllogism 294. systematic desensitization: a.k.a. counterconditioning 295. Tay-Sachs disease 296. testable hypothesis 297. thalamus: location & function (& what sense doesn't get routed through here?) 298. Thorndike's Law of Effect 299. thyroid gland 300. tip-of-the-tongue effect/phenomenon 301. token economy 302. Tourette's syndrome 303. tragedy of the commons 304. transduction (location of for all senses) 305. Turner's syndrome (X with missing chromosome) 306. two kinds of deafness: Conductive and nerve 307. validity: predictive, criterion & content 308. vestibular sense 309. visual cliff 310. water balance (role of hypothalamus) 311. Weber's law 312. Wernicke's area: location & (receptive aphasia 313. Wilder Penfield's (mapping of the brain) 314. Wilhelm Wundt (structualism...Titchener too) 315. William James (functionalism) 316. Yerkes/Dodson Arousal Law 317. Zajonc's "Mere Expose Effect" 318. Zimbardo's prison experiment Reality check…Be. HONEST…. 1. Do you KNOW all of these names & terms? If not start over If you do great, but review them again to make sure 2. Have you STUDIED all of your notes? “looking” at them is not enough Reading them is not enough You have to use effortful processing, meaning you actually have to WORK to commit them to long term memory 3. Have you reviewed your note cards? Do you still have to peek at the back of some for the definition? Once again, looking at them is not enough… Do you KNOW them BEYOND recognition? AP Psychology exam - Monday, May 2 (afternoon session) Good Luck!!!!