Download Social Order during the Republic

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Roman army of the late Republic wikipedia, lookup

Glossary of ancient Roman religion wikipedia, lookup

Roman agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Roman historiography wikipedia, lookup

Leges regiae wikipedia, lookup

Roman Senate wikipedia, lookup

Clothing in ancient Rome wikipedia, lookup

Roman Republican governors of Gaul wikipedia, lookup

Culture of ancient Rome wikipedia, lookup

History of the Constitution of the Roman Empire wikipedia, lookup

Roman Republic wikipedia, lookup

Roman censor wikipedia, lookup

Early Roman army wikipedia, lookup

Constitution of the Roman Empire wikipedia, lookup

Conflict of the Orders wikipedia, lookup

Roman Kingdom wikipedia, lookup

Senatus consultum ultimum wikipedia, lookup

Decemviri wikipedia, lookup

Centuriate Assembly wikipedia, lookup

Constitutional reforms of Sulla wikipedia, lookup

Constitutional reforms of Augustus wikipedia, lookup

Roman dictator wikipedia, lookup

History of the Roman Constitution wikipedia, lookup

Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic wikipedia, lookup

Roman tribe wikipedia, lookup

Promagistrate wikipedia, lookup

Executive magistrates of the Roman Republic wikipedia, lookup

Constitution of the Roman Republic wikipedia, lookup

Cursus honorum wikipedia, lookup

Social Structures during the
Roman Republic
Offices, Assemblies, and Religion
Political Order
4th century to end of the Republic
Direct participation of citizens
All roles performed under the watch of the public
Officials dealt directly with those they governed lack of a bureaucracy
Government dominated by a few elite families
Government Offices
Formed in the mid 5th century
Oversaw public money
Supervised the treasury (Temple of Saturn) and the
fund that generals took on campaigns
Elected annually
Two plebian and two patrician (curule aediles)
Maintained temples, city streets, markets
Judged disputes that arose in the markets
Government Offices
Elected annually
Originally one, then two (242 BC), then more as the
empire expanded
 Office opened to plebians through the Conflict of
 Leading officials in Rome when consuls were absent
on campaign
 Acted as judge
 Different praetors had different roles
 Propraetor - govern a province
 Wore the toga praetexta, held imperium, 6 lictors
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
Government Offices
QuickTi me™ a nd a
de com press or
are need ed to se e th is p icture.
consuls chosen each year
 Generals of the army
 Made sacrifices, presided over meetings of the
senate, addressed assemblies, listened to
complaints, made judgments
 Proconsul - govern a province
 Toga praetexta, curule, imperium, 12 lictors
Government Offices
Tribune of the Plebs
Office formed during the Conflict of Orders
Most important of the lesser officeholders
Had the right to summon citizens to vote
Ability to block public actions that they thought were
unlawful or inappropriate
 Veto power over consuls (except when appointing a
 Protects the Plebians
 They could not prevent praetors and consuls from
acting as they wished outside the city of Rome (so they
could not interfere with campaigns)
Government Offices
 Elected very 5 years, held office for 18 months
 Counted citizens and assigned them to
centuries and tribes
 Based
on place of residence, property, dependents,
and even character
 Selected
the 300 senators based on rank
 Highest
ranking senator was given the title
princeps senatus
Elected in times of emergencies
Senate would declare that a dictator was needed,
and the consuls would select one
In power for 6 months
All other magistrates, except Tribune of the
Plebs, were suspended
24 lictors, highest imperium
Magister Equitum - master of the horses
appointed as second in command
6 lictors, praetor role
Imperium and Auspicium
a special right to command
Religious association
Gave magistrates authority to lead armies and punish
Imperium limited by office and presence of higher
Right to seek the approval of the gods for their tenure
in office and their official actions
Rituals of divination known as auspices, read by
Cursus Honorum
Problem with same people holding offices
 Order of public offices
 Minimum age for each office (patricians
could subtract 2 years from minimum age)
 Though
rarely allowed in the 1st century BC
It was a mark of great political success to
obtain a position in suo anno
 Cicero
- “new man,” elected to consul in suo
Cursus Honorum
10 years of military duty (20-30)
Quaestor (30)
Aedile (36)
Not required to move on to next step
Praetor (39)
Consul (42)
Military Tribune - 24 legion commanders
Highest office
Censor (usually had to have served as consul)
The Senate
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
300 men
 usually all office holders were senators,
usually lifelong membership
 Met when summoned by consul, praetor,
or tribunes of the plebs
 Advisory role to the officials of Rome
 Gradually assumed more active role
Open to all male citizens
 Not representative
 Voted on officeholders, laws, and trials
 Officials determined the agenda, citizens
only discussed and voted
 Contiones - occasions just for discussion
and debate
 Comitia and concilia - voting
 All assemblies met in Rome (or near)
Comitia Centuriata
Organization mirrored the army
 Elected consuls, praetors, and censors
 Voted on matters of war and peace
 Only an official with imperium could
summon the assembly
 Voting done by century (determined by
 Each century got one vote
 Favored upper classes
Comitia Tributa
Organized by tribes
4 tribes in the city
31 in the country
One vote per tribe no matter how many people in
 Elected quaetors, curule aediles, and military
 Had the power to try cases (though taken away in
later reforms)
 Legislative power
Concilium Plebis
Assembly for plebeians
 Passed laws, elected magistrates (tribunes
and plebeian aediles), and tried judicial
 Organized based on tribes
Not separated from governmental institutions
Cheif magistrates performed major rites of the
Officials were often advised by priests
Pontifex (pontifices) exercised general
supervision over the religion, rites, and the
Roman calendar
9 pontifices by 3rd century, 15 in 1st century
Headed by the pontifex maximus
 Auspices
which confirmed officials power in
the eyes of the gods
Vestal Virgins
 Wives of pontifex maximus and the priest
of Jupiter (flamen Dialis) took part in
some of their husbands ritual