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Age of Jefferson
AP United States History
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
Plantation farmer from Virginia
Statesman (Declaration of
Independence, Secretary of
State, Vice-President, President)
 Founded the party in opposition
to Alexander Hamilton’s
 Kentucky Resolution
“Renaissance Man”
 Inventor, philosopher, architect,
Slave owner
What is Jeffersonianism?
Republicanism and Civic Virtue
 Citizens’ civic duty to aid the state
Voting and efficacy
Right to education
 Resist corruption and Natural Elites
Federalism and States’ Rights
Ultimate sovereignty in the states and nullification
Strict constitutionalist
Dominant legislature, weak judiciary
Economic coercion over standing armies
Yeoman Farmers as Ideal Citizens
 Educated landowners exemplified independence and virtue
Agriculture Over Manufacture/Industry
 Responsibility of subsistence
 Dependence led to class conflict
Empire of Liberty and Foreign Policy
 America’s responsibility to spread democracy
 Avoid entangling alliances
Republican motherhood; absent from politics
Natives capable, just need to catch up (noble savages)
Black inferiority and white superiority
Separation of Church and State
Was Jefferson Jeffersonian?
Consider the following historical concepts
and events and answer the above
The Federal Judiciary
Louisiana Purchase
Tripoli Pirates
Embargo Act of 1807
First Party System (1792-1824)
American period of political parties between the Federalists and
Nationalism; republicanism
loose interpretation of Constitution;
business, commercial, and upper class;
New England;
dominated early years of national government, but dominated most of
States’ rights; individual liberties
strict interpretation of Constitution;
working class;
South, West, frontier;
large majorities in Congress and Executive in latter years
Jefferson and the Federal
Only Federalist justices on
the Supreme Court
 John Marshall as Chief
Judiciary Act of 1801
 Reduced number of SC
 Increased number of federal
courts; filled by Adams
 Repealed in 1802
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
 Judicial review - Supreme
Court’s determining
constitutionality of issues
Dem-Reps lead
impeachments against
Federalist judges
 Alcoholism and partisanship
grounds for impeachment?
Jefferson and the Louisiana
Napoleon’s Caribbean Empire
Plan and Britain’s Control of the
 America sandwiched between
European powers
Brokered a deal for $15 million
 Gain control of New Orleans
Lewis and Clark Expedition
 Find waterway from east to Pacific
Federalist opposition
Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates
Barbary pirates earned revenue for North African states
 Extorting and harassing American ships
 U.S. Navy and Marines dispatched to end the Tripoli threat
 Treaty signed in 1805 in favor of Americans
 War cost less than preserving peace
Jefferson and the Embargo Act
Orders of Council and Continental System
outlawed American trade
 British impressment of Americans and seizures of
American ships
 HMS Leopard and USS Chesapeake
Embargo Act of 1807
 Prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for
foreign ports
 Economic impact on Americans
 Merchants
and traders suffered
 Farms foreclosed
 Increased production and diversified manufacturing
Election of 1808
Jefferson’s Legacy Becomes Madison’s
James Madison (D-R) elected
President, but Federalists gain some
 Anglo-French rivalry bullies USA
 Seizing American ships
Nonintercourse Act of 1809
 Forbade trade with Britain and France
unless promised to cease harassing U.S.
Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)
 If Britain or France repealed restrictions
on neutral ships then U.S. would cease
trade with the other
British influence in the West
 Rumors of British stirring up antiAmerican sentiment among Natives
 Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)
Leading Up to the War of 1812
United States vs. Great Britain
 British impressment
 “Our old enemy.”
 British influence in the frontier
 War hawks
 John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay
 Opposition
 Federalists
 Old guard Dem-Reps
 New England and merchants
War of 1812
Failed American invasion of Canada
British Invasion of D.C. and Baltimore
 Washington, D.C. burned (August 1814)
 Ft. McHenry (September 1814)
Naval Victories and U.S.S. Constitution
Americans and the Natives
 Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison
 Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814)
 Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)
 Stalemate; nothing earned
 Patriotic victory
 Battle of New Orleans (January 1815)
 Andrew Jackson
Nature FTW
“Old Ironsides”
- Constructed in
- Still in
42 Wins
0 Losses
The End of the Federalists
“Victory” over Great Britain and proBritish/anti-war support labeled them as
Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814)
 Ratify Constitution in attempt to weaken Dem-Rep
in West and South
 Talk of secession by radicals*
After the War of 1812 Federalists soon would
dissolve even in New England stronghold
War of 1812’s Impact
International respect
Development of U.S.-Canada relations
Natives on their own and weak
Industrial development
Growth of nationalism
Eyes toward the West