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Age of Jefferson
Unit IIIA
AP United States History
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)



Plantation farmer from Virginia
Statesman (Declaration of
Independence, Secretary of
State, Vice-President, President)
Democratic-Republican
 Founded the party in opposition
to Alexander Hamilton’s
Federalists
 Kentucky Resolution

“Renaissance Man”
 Inventor, philosopher, architect,
scientist

Slave owner

What is Jeffersonianism?
Republicanism and Civic Virtue
 Citizens’ civic duty to aid the state


Voting and efficacy
Right to education
 Resist corruption and Natural Elites

Federalism and States’ Rights
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
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Ultimate sovereignty in the states and nullification
Strict constitutionalist
Dominant legislature, weak judiciary
Economic coercion over standing armies
Yeoman Farmers as Ideal Citizens
 Educated landowners exemplified independence and virtue

Agriculture Over Manufacture/Industry
 Responsibility of subsistence
 Dependence led to class conflict

Empire of Liberty and Foreign Policy
 America’s responsibility to spread democracy
 Avoid entangling alliances

Society


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
Republican motherhood; absent from politics
Natives capable, just need to catch up (noble savages)
Black inferiority and white superiority
Separation of Church and State
Was Jefferson Jeffersonian?



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
Consider the following historical concepts
and events and answer the above
question…
The Federal Judiciary
Louisiana Purchase
Tripoli Pirates
Embargo Act of 1807
First Party System (1792-1824)


American period of political parties between the Federalists and
Democratic-Republicans
Federalists:




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

Nationalism; republicanism
loose interpretation of Constitution;
business, commercial, and upper class;
New England;
pro-British;
dominated early years of national government, but dominated most of
Judiciary
Democratic-Republicans:





States’ rights; individual liberties
strict interpretation of Constitution;
working class;
South, West, frontier;
large majorities in Congress and Executive in latter years
Jefferson and the Federal
Judiciary

Only Federalist justices on
the Supreme Court
 John Marshall as Chief
Justice

Judiciary Act of 1801
 Reduced number of SC
justices
 Increased number of federal
courts; filled by Adams
 Repealed in 1802

Marbury v. Madison (1803)
 Judicial review - Supreme
Court’s determining
constitutionality of issues

Dem-Reps lead
impeachments against
Federalist judges
 Alcoholism and partisanship
grounds for impeachment?
Jefferson and the Louisiana
Purchase

Napoleon’s Caribbean Empire
Plan and Britain’s Control of the
Atlantic
 America sandwiched between
European powers

Brokered a deal for $15 million
 Gain control of New Orleans

Lewis and Clark Expedition
 Find waterway from east to Pacific

Federalist opposition
Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates

Barbary pirates earned revenue for North African states
 Extorting and harassing American ships
 U.S. Navy and Marines dispatched to end the Tripoli threat
 Treaty signed in 1805 in favor of Americans
 War cost less than preserving peace
Jefferson and the Embargo Act

Orders of Council and Continental System
outlawed American trade
 British impressment of Americans and seizures of
American ships
 HMS Leopard and USS Chesapeake

Embargo Act of 1807
 Prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for
foreign ports
 Economic impact on Americans
 Merchants
and traders suffered
 Farms foreclosed
 Increased production and diversified manufacturing
Election of 1808
Jefferson’s Legacy Becomes Madison’s

James Madison (D-R) elected
President, but Federalists gain some
seats
 Anglo-French rivalry bullies USA
 Seizing American ships

Nonintercourse Act of 1809
 Forbade trade with Britain and France
unless promised to cease harassing U.S.
ships

Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)
 If Britain or France repealed restrictions
on neutral ships then U.S. would cease
trade with the other

British influence in the West
 Rumors of British stirring up antiAmerican sentiment among Natives
 Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)
Leading Up to the War of 1812

United States vs. Great Britain
 British impressment
 “Our old enemy.”
 British influence in the frontier
 War hawks
 John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay
 Opposition
 Federalists
 Old guard Dem-Reps
 New England and merchants
War of 1812


Failed American invasion of Canada
British Invasion of D.C. and Baltimore
 Washington, D.C. burned (August 1814)
 Ft. McHenry (September 1814)


Naval Victories and U.S.S. Constitution
Americans and the Natives
 Tecumseh and William Henry Harrison
 Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814)
 Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)
 Stalemate; nothing earned
 Patriotic victory
 Battle of New Orleans (January 1815)
 Andrew Jackson
Nature FTW
“Old Ironsides”
- Constructed in
1797
- Still in
commission
42 Wins
0 Losses
The End of the Federalists


“Victory” over Great Britain and proBritish/anti-war support labeled them as
unpatriotic
Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814)
 Ratify Constitution in attempt to weaken Dem-Rep
in West and South
 Talk of secession by radicals*

After the War of 1812 Federalists soon would
dissolve even in New England stronghold
War of 1812’s Impact
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International respect
Development of U.S.-Canada relations
Natives on their own and weak
Industrial development
Growth of nationalism
Eyes toward the West