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U.S. from 1800-1850
Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase
• Who owned Louisiana in the 1790s?
– Spain
How did France gain possession of Louisiana?
– Treaty with Spain
Why did Napoleon want to sell Louisiana?
– France needed money as war in Europe resumed
Who negotiated the treaty with France?
– James Monroe and Robert Livingston
• What did Jefferson initially want to buy?
– the port of New Orleans
How much did the United States pay for Louisiana?
– $15 million
• What concerns, if any, did Jefferson have about the purchase?
– He was concerned about the constitutionality of the purchase
What was the long-term significance of the purchase?
– secured the JMississippi River, avoided conflicts with France, furthered
possible alliance with Great Britain, strengthened the federal
government, established a precedent for land purchases)
Madison and the War of 1812
Why did the U.S. go to war with Great Britain again in 1812?
• Impressments
– Britain took American sailors off of American ships and made them
serve in the British navy.
• Freedom of the seas
– U.S. was being forced by Britain and France to choose sides if the U.S.
wanted to trade freely with either country
• The Embargo of 1807
– Jefferson cut off all trade in order to avoid being drawn into the
European conflict. This devastated U.S. economy
• The Barbary pirates
– These were privateers in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of North
Africa who were also trying to stop American shipping.
• The Napoleonic Wars
– Ongoing European struggle between Britain and France, both countries
wanted the United States to be on their side.
War of 1812: Attack on Washington
• August 24, 1814
• Burned Washington, D.C. government
– White House and Capitol
– Dolly Madison saved portrait of Washington
• Moved on to Baltimore from Washington
White House After Attack
Capitol Building
Attack on Baltimore
• Americans defended Ft. McHenry
• Star-Spangled Banner written by Francis
Scott Key about the battle
End of the War
• Ended with Treaty of Ghent
– December 24, 1814
Era of Good Feelings
• Nationalism
– Pride and Patriotism Surge post-war
• Federalist Party Dissolves
– Most Federalists opposed War of 1812 and
were seen as disloyal
• Era of Good Feelings
– Only one party and therefore no group
attacking President
The Monroe Doctrine
− The American continents should not be
considered for future colonization by any
European powers.
− Nations in the Western Hemisphere were
inherently different from those of Europe —
republics by nature rather than monarchies.
− The United States would regard as a threat to
her own peace and safety any attempt by
European powers to impose their system on any
independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
− The United States would not interfere in
European affairs.
President Monroe and Secretary of
State John Quincy Adams
Westward Movement
• Americans moved West from the East
Coast for economic opportunities
• The growth of railroads and canals helped
the growth of an industrial economy and
supported the westward movement of
Americans vs. Mexicans
• Americans in Texas led an armed revolt against
Mexican rule
• Battle of the Alamo (Texans lost to Mexican
• The Texans’ eventual victory over Mexican
forces subsequently brought Texas into the
• The Mexican- American War (1846-1848):
– Americans won; gained territory that included the
present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah,
Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
Trail of Tears
• As Americans moved West, Indians were
moved to reservations
• Trail of Tears (1831-1838)
– the relocation Native Americans (Cherokee,
Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations) from
their homelands to Indian Territory (present
day Oklahoma)
Trail of Tears
Gibbons v. Ogden
• Supreme Court of the U.S. held that the
power to regulate interstate commerce
was granted to Congress by the
Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution
• Further strengthens the power of the
national government
Adams-Onis Treaty
• U.S. receives Florida
from Spain
• Settled boundaries
between U.S. and
Spain in West
Gadsden Purchase
• Territory in presentday Arizona and New
Mexico purchased
from Mexico by
President Pierce.
Whiskey Rebellion
• Tax protest in
Pennsylvania during
• Angry about excise
tax on whiskey
Panic of 1819
• Economic depression that resulted after
the Embargo Act, War of 1812, and failure
to re-charter the National Bank
• First major financial crisis of U.S.