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U.S. from 1800-1850 Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase • Who owned Louisiana in the 1790s? – Spain • How did France gain possession of Louisiana? – Treaty with Spain • Why did Napoleon want to sell Louisiana? – France needed money as war in Europe resumed • Who negotiated the treaty with France? – James Monroe and Robert Livingston • What did Jefferson initially want to buy? – the port of New Orleans • How much did the United States pay for Louisiana? – $15 million • What concerns, if any, did Jefferson have about the purchase? – He was concerned about the constitutionality of the purchase • What was the long-term significance of the purchase? – secured the JMississippi River, avoided conflicts with France, furthered possible alliance with Great Britain, strengthened the federal government, established a precedent for land purchases) Madison and the War of 1812 Why did the U.S. go to war with Great Britain again in 1812? • Impressments – Britain took American sailors off of American ships and made them serve in the British navy. • Freedom of the seas – U.S. was being forced by Britain and France to choose sides if the U.S. wanted to trade freely with either country • The Embargo of 1807 – Jefferson cut off all trade in order to avoid being drawn into the European conflict. This devastated U.S. economy • The Barbary pirates – These were privateers in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of North Africa who were also trying to stop American shipping. • The Napoleonic Wars – Ongoing European struggle between Britain and France, both countries wanted the United States to be on their side. War of 1812: Attack on Washington • August 24, 1814 • Burned Washington, D.C. government buildings – White House and Capitol – Dolly Madison saved portrait of Washington • Moved on to Baltimore from Washington White House After Attack Capitol Building Attack on Baltimore • Americans defended Ft. McHenry • Star-Spangled Banner written by Francis Scott Key about the battle End of the War • Ended with Treaty of Ghent – December 24, 1814 Era of Good Feelings • Nationalism – Pride and Patriotism Surge post-war • Federalist Party Dissolves – Most Federalists opposed War of 1812 and were seen as disloyal • Era of Good Feelings – Only one party and therefore no group attacking President The Monroe Doctrine − The American continents should not be considered for future colonization by any European powers. − Nations in the Western Hemisphere were inherently different from those of Europe — republics by nature rather than monarchies. − The United States would regard as a threat to her own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere. − The United States would not interfere in European affairs. President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams Westward Movement • Americans moved West from the East Coast for economic opportunities • The growth of railroads and canals helped the growth of an industrial economy and supported the westward movement of settlers. Americans vs. Mexicans • Americans in Texas led an armed revolt against Mexican rule • Battle of the Alamo (Texans lost to Mexican army) • The Texans’ eventual victory over Mexican forces subsequently brought Texas into the Union. • The Mexican- American War (1846-1848): – Americans won; gained territory that included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Trail of Tears • As Americans moved West, Indians were moved to reservations • Trail of Tears (1831-1838) – the relocation Native Americans (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations) from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) Trail of Tears Gibbons v. Ogden • Supreme Court of the U.S. held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution • Further strengthens the power of the national government Adams-Onis Treaty • U.S. receives Florida from Spain • Settled boundaries between U.S. and Spain in West Gadsden Purchase • Territory in presentday Arizona and New Mexico purchased from Mexico by President Pierce. Whiskey Rebellion • Tax protest in Pennsylvania during Washington’s Presidency • Angry about excise tax on whiskey Panic of 1819 • Economic depression that resulted after the Embargo Act, War of 1812, and failure to re-charter the National Bank • First major financial crisis of U.S.