Download The Election of 1800

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
The Election of 1800
showed that power could be peacefully
transferred even when the political
parties were in disagreement.
President John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson
The Election of 1800
Each candidate received 73 electoral votes
so the House of Representatives had to
decide the election.
Thomas Jefferson
won and
Aaron Burr became vice president.
The Election of 1800
Jefferson’s belief that a large federal government
threatened liberty was similar to the French
philosophy known as laissez-faire .
policy that government
should interfere as little as
possible in the nation’s
economy
Jefferson’s Presidency
Thomas Jefferson repealed all federal internal taxes
and funded the government through customs duties.
tax on foreign imported
goods
Jefferson’s Presidency
Jefferson was shut out of the judicial appointment
process by President Adams’s last-minute appointments
to the courts set up by the Judiciary Act of 1801 .
Jefferson’s Presidency
Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review
to help resolve conflicts constitutionally.
the right of the Supreme Court
to determine if a law violates
the Constitution.
Western Territory
American pioneers loaded their Conestoga wagons
and moved towards the Mississippi river, then the
westernmost boundary of the United States.
large, broad-wheeled,
canvas-covered wagon
used by western settlers
Western Territory
The Louisiana Territory—the land west of the
Mississippi River— belonged to Spain .
In 1802 Spain secretly transferred the
Louisiana Territory to France .
Western Territory
France’s leader, Napoleon Bonaparte ,
had plans to create empires in Europe
and the Americas.
A revolt by enslaved Africans and other
laborers in the key port of Santo Domingo
ended Napoleon’s dream of a Western
empire.
Needing money to fund his war against Britain, Napoleon
agreed to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States
for $15 million .
President Jefferson worried whether the government had constitutional
authority to make such a purchase.
Western Territory
In 1804 Congress sponsored an expedition to explore
the new western territory and search for the
Northwest Passage.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the
expedition and were guided by a young Shoshone
woman named Sacagawea .
Western Territory
Why did Pres. Jefferson choose
Lewis and Clark for this expedition?
Both men were well-known
amateur scientist
Both men
conducted
business w/ Native
Am.
Lieutenant Zebulon Pike also led expeditions through
the upper Mississippi Valley and into present-day
Colorado.
Americans on Foreign Seas
Pirates made travel by sea dangerous and
brought the US into conflict with Tripoli.
Because France and Britain were at war, American
merchant ships took over much of the transport of goods
and profited greatly .
Pirates from the Barbary Coast of Africa frequently
intercepted ships and demanded tribute in exchange for
safe passage.
money paid for protection
In 1804 Tripoli declared war on the U S for
Jefferson’s refusal to pay tribute.
Freedom of the Seas
The United States tried
to retain neutral rights
in the war between
Britain and France.
the right to sail the seas
and not take sides in a war
Freedom of the Seas
The British were in desperate need of sailors for their
naval war, so they boarded American
ships and forced members of their crews
to serve in the British navy in a practice
known as impressment.
forcing people into
service, as in the navy
Freedom of the Seas
A British attack on an American ship, the Chesapeake,
caused Americans to react with violent anti-British feeling.
In 1807, Congress passed the
Embargo Act, which was an
embargo against all foreign trade.
an order prohibiting trade
with another country
Later the Nonintercourse Act,
which prohibited trade only with
Britain and France, was passed.
War Fever
Congress lifted its trade restrictions with France in 1810, but
American ships continued to be seized by both the French
and British.
A Native American
confederacy, led by
Shawnee chief
Tecumseh, wanted to
halt the movement of
settlers into Native
American land.
After defeat at the Battle of Tippecanoe,
Tecumseh made an alliance with the British.
War Fever
A group of young Republicans known as the War Hawks, led
by Henry Clay and John Calhoun, wanted President
Madison to take a more aggressive stand toward Britain.
intense loyalty to one’s nation or
group and promotion of its interests
above all others
The War Hawks’ nationalism appealed
to a renewed American patriotism.
War Begins
In 1812 the U.S. declared war against Britain,
not knowing that the British had decided to
change their policy of capturing American ships.
Going into war, the military was not prepared for battle and
the Americans underestimated the strength of the British
and their Native American allies.
The United States used naval
frigates and privateers
Small
warships
to battle the British navy.
armed private ship
licensed to attack
merchant ships
The British
Offensive
British
Offensive
After winning their war against France, the British were able to
send more forces to America.
In August 1814, the British sailed up the Chesapeake River
and attacked Washington D.C.
burning the Capitol and president’s mansion.
The British Offensive
Francis Scott Key, inspired by the
American victory in Baltimore, wrote
the poem “The Star-Spangled
Banner” which became the National
Anthem in 1931.
Unable to meet their goal, and a
defeat at Lake Champlain, the
British decided the war was too
costly and unnecessary.
A peace agreement known as
the Treaty of Ghent was signed
in Belgium in 1814.
The last battle of the War of 1812, the
Battle of New Orleans, was waged
after the Treaty of Ghent was signed.
After the War of 1812, Americans felt a new sense of patriotism
and strong national identity.
The War of 1812