Lesson 10: The Age of Jefferson A Republican Takes Office The Louisiana Purchase Timeline New Threats From Overseas The Road to War Labeled Map War of 1812 MAPS Concepts Collaborative Learning 1 Bell work Section 1: A Republican Takes Office “Revolution” in electing him, the American people had voted for changes that were as great as those that they had fought for during the Revolutionary War. Setting the Scene, page 302 Jefferson- Democratic-Republican, sworn in by John Marshall =Federalist He wanted to make government more democratic; 1. ensuring that all people have the same rights kept Bank of United States Laissez-faire – Free market – (let alone) goods and services Government should are exchanged have a small role w/little in people’s regulation affair Jefferson’s goals and beliefs strict constructionist about government to be democratic, lessen he allowed many government Federalists to power keep their wanted to jobs reduce preferred the federal a budget farming society Thomas Jefferson President of U.S. Albert Gallatin Secretary of Treasury Roles in Government James Madison Secretary of State John Marshall Supreme Court Justice Roles in Government Before leaving office, Adams appointed “midnight judges.” John Marshall – chief justice of Supreme Court President Jefferson tried to get William Marbury removed. The Supreme Court said………….. 3. Marbury v. Madison = was a landmark court case that gave the Supreme Court the power of judicial review 4. Judicial review – power of the Supreme Court to decide if laws are fair or unconstitutional SECTION 2 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE • The United States =growing rapidly and people began to move West in search of new land. The country of Spain controlled both the lower Mississippi and the port of New Orleans. The western border of the U.S. was the MS River. Despite Treaties, Spain continued to cause trouble for Americans. 5. MS River was important to farmers because they traded goods through the port of New Orleans. 6. In 1800, Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory to France. (secret treaty) 7. Napoleon Bonaparte was the French dictator that had plans to conquer Europe. • Jefferson wanted control of New Orleans. • He offered to buy it from France. • Livingston had authority to purchase New Orleans and West Florida. • Napoleon offered all of the Louisiana Territory. 8. • Napoleon (needs money) preferred to sell the Louisiana Territory to U.S. instead of seeing it in Britain’s control. • Monroe and Livingston agreed to buy the territory. • U.S. and France signed treaty in 1803. • France sold the Louisiana Territory to the U.S. for 15 million dollars. philanthropy 1 the practice of performing charitable or benevolent actions 4 philanthropy Generosity Kindness Charitable Patronage 2 philanthropy 3 philanthropy 6 philanthropy Do nice things for other people and being concerned for other things 5 philanthropy The students who cleaned the park for the benefit of the community displayed philanthropy. Donating money to charity on a regular basis Meriwether Lewis and William Clark 10. Lewis and Clark started their expedition from the city of St. Louis, Missouri in 1804. Some images © 2003 www.clipart.com. Place a star over #4 on your map! 11. Sacajawea - Shoshone Indian who served as3 a guide and a interpreter for Lewis and Clark. They settled for the winter near the mouth of the Knife River in North Dakota. Sacagawea joined the crew. Image © 2003 www.clipart.com. 12. Continental Divide – mountain ridge that separates river sections flowing toward opposite sides of a continent. Image © 2003 www.clipart.com. 13. The expedition took 2 years and 4 months. 14. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the U.S. 15. What would have been the benefits of finding an all water route to the Pacific Ocean? http://lewisandclark.co m/links/links.html 16. Found new plants/animals Better maps Source of the MO River Discovered the Great Falls 17. Compare and Contrast Lewis and Clark. 28 years old often traveled alone 32 years old proven leaders Jefferson’s Meriwether chief aid Lewis “man of courage” kept journals map maker William Clark captains Governor of Louisiana Governor of Missouri large family raised Sacajawea’s son 18. Acts of Philanthropy (based on Lewis and Clark’s Journey West) The Nez Perce showed the expedition how to burn out the insides of logs to make canoes. The Clatsop showed the expedition where to find elk, which they could use for food or to make clothing. Sacajawea served as guide and interpreter for Lewis and Clark. Clark took care of Jean Babtiste after Sacajawea died. Lewis and Clark wrote to Jefferson as he requested and gave him detailed facts about the animals and plants. Zebulon Pike’s explorations gave U.S. better knowledge about the lands in the Southwest. Spanish Territory Louisiana Territory MS River United States New Orleans Spanish Florida Oregon Country St. Louis Lewis/Clark 1804 Continental Divide Observe Your Map: 1. Whose expedition went into Spanish Territory? 2. Which city lay at the mouth of the Mississippi River? 3. Whose expedition began in St. Louis? 4. Which mountain range is North America’s continental divide? 5. Whose expedition went into land claimed by Great Britain? The Election of 1804: • Jefferson easily won the election of 1804. • George Clinton was the new running mate. He replaced Aaron Burr to be the V.P. Aaron Burr – secretly wanted to establish an empire on the Western Frontier, and killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. SECTION 3 New Threats from Overseas (page 312) Section 3: New Threats from Overseas • Jefferson was committed to Washington’s policy of neutrality. Benefits of overseas trade: •Merchants made money as trading increased. •Merchants traded with China. (profit) •Increased communication with other continents Risks of overseas trade: •Conflict with Barbary States •Britain and France violated neutrality. •Jefferson creates an embargo that merchants hated. •Smuggling a problem Tribute - bribe War Hawks 19. Trace the events that led up to Congress declaring war on Britain. Event Explanation Seizing of American ships Britain and France were at war again, and neither country wanted the U.S. to trade with the other. Both countries seized American ships to hurt each others trade and economy. Both countries ignored America’s claims of neutrality. British impressments The British navy needed more sailors. British began impressment of men which is the practice of forcing people into military service. Britain boarded American vessels and took Americans. The U.S. was furious, and many demanded war. Embargo Act Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act hoping to hurt France and Britain’s trade. The Act did hurt the two countries but it hurt the U.S. more. Many Americans protested the act. An embargo is a ban on trade. Increased conflicts with Native Americans In the Ohio Valley, Native Americans were still resisting American settlement. Violence led to warfare. War Hawks War Hawks were members from Congress in the South and West that were wanting to go to war with Britain. They were persuasive and outspoken. Many northerners believed the people and the President was influenced by the War Hawks. British blockade of ports To cut off American trade with France, British warships blockaded some of America’s ports. This sparked war fever among many Americans. James Madison Dolly Madison • The Embargo Act had been repealed and replaced. • 20. James Madison – won the election of 1808 to become the 4th President of the United States. (Republican) Madison’s votes came mostly from the South and the West. 21. June 18, 1812 – President Madison asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain. Section 5 CAUSES OF THE WAR: Clip 1 Impressment of sailors British helping Native Americans War Hawks Seizing of American ships (Chesapeake Leopard Affair) Blockade of Ports 22. Disadvantages / American Problems *The US was unprepared militarily: Had a 16-ship navy vs. Britain’s 800 ships. *Financially unprepared *Relied on volunteers *Regional differences Jefferson had reduced military spending which left the army and navy unprepared for war. By spring of 1814, Britain and its allies had defeated Napoleon. Now Britain could send more troops to fight the U.S. The White House Is Burning; The British Are Coming, AGAIN!! 23. In 1814, the British captured and burned Washington D.C. 24. Dolly Madison is credited with saving many important documents along with a portrait of George Washington. Battle of Fort McHenry: Troops protected city of Baltimore and held off the British for 25 hours, finally forcing them to retreat. Francis Scott Key watched the battle from the deck of a prisoner-of-war ship. 25. The War of 1812 inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. In 1931, Congress adopted it as the national anthem. And the rockets red glare The bombs bursting in air… -- Francis Scott Key 26. The Treaty of Ghent signed on Christmas Eve of 1814, ended the War of 1812. 27. Effects of the War: --U.S. won respect of foreign nations --Nationalism increased --destroyed the power of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory 28. The Presidents • 1. George Washington (1789-1797) • 2. John Adams (1797-1801) • 3. Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) • 4. James Madison (1809-1817) Concepts: The big ideas, important generalizations about a topic A concept is an idea that is timeless, abstract, broad and can be shown through a variety of examples How do I know that Natural resources affect the living patterns of people? 29. Paragraph • Analyze the concept of communication. Write a paragraph describing how lack of communication during Madison’s presidency has convinced many historians that the War of 1812 should have never happened.