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Transcript
Lesson 10: The Age of Jefferson
A Republican
Takes Office
The Louisiana
Purchase
Timeline
New Threats From
Overseas
The Road to
War
Labeled
Map
War of 1812
MAPS
Concepts
Collaborative
Learning 1
Bell work
Section 1: A Republican Takes Office
“Revolution”
in electing him, the
American people had voted
for changes that were as
great as those that they
had fought for during the
Revolutionary War.
Setting the Scene, page
302
Jefferson- Democratic-Republican,
sworn in by John Marshall =Federalist
He wanted to make government more
democratic;
1. ensuring that all people have the same rights
kept Bank
of United
States
Laissez-faire –
Free market –
(let alone)
goods and services
Government should
are exchanged
have a small role
w/little
in people’s
regulation
affair
Jefferson’s goals
and beliefs
strict
constructionist
about government
to be democratic,
lessen
he allowed many
government
Federalists to
power
keep their
wanted to
jobs
reduce
preferred
the federal
a
budget
farming
society
Thomas Jefferson
President of U.S.
Albert Gallatin
Secretary of Treasury
Roles in Government
James Madison
Secretary of State
John Marshall
Supreme Court Justice
Roles in Government
Before leaving office, Adams appointed
“midnight judges.”
John Marshall – chief justice of Supreme
Court
President Jefferson tried to get
William Marbury removed.
The Supreme Court said…………..
3. Marbury v. Madison = was a landmark court
case that gave the Supreme Court the power of
judicial review
4. Judicial review – power of the Supreme
Court to decide if laws are fair or
unconstitutional
SECTION 2
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
• The United States =growing rapidly and people began
to move West in search of new land.
The country of Spain controlled both the lower
Mississippi and the port of New Orleans. The western
border of the U.S. was the MS River.
Despite
Treaties,
Spain
continued to
cause trouble
for
Americans.
5. MS River was important
to farmers because they
traded goods through the
port of New Orleans.
6. In 1800, Spain ceded the
Louisiana Territory to
France. (secret treaty)
7. Napoleon Bonaparte was
the French dictator that
had plans to conquer
Europe.
• Jefferson wanted
control of New
Orleans.
• He offered to buy
it from France.
• Livingston had
authority to
purchase New
Orleans and West
Florida.
• Napoleon offered
all of the Louisiana
Territory.
8.
• Napoleon (needs
money) preferred to
sell the Louisiana
Territory to U.S.
instead of seeing it in
Britain’s control.
• Monroe and
Livingston agreed
to buy the
territory.
• U.S. and France
signed treaty in
1803.
• France sold the Louisiana Territory to the
U.S. for 15 million dollars.
philanthropy
1
the practice of
performing
charitable
or benevolent
actions
4
philanthropy
Generosity
Kindness
Charitable
Patronage
2
philanthropy
3
philanthropy
6
philanthropy
Do nice things
for other people and
being concerned for
other
things
5
philanthropy
The students who
cleaned the park for
the benefit of the
community displayed
philanthropy.
Donating money to
charity
on a regular basis
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
10. Lewis and Clark started their expedition from
the city of St. Louis, Missouri in 1804.
Some images © 2003 www.clipart.com.
Place a star over #4
on your map!
11. Sacajawea - Shoshone
Indian who served as3 a
guide and a interpreter for
Lewis and Clark.
They settled for the winter near the mouth of the Knife River in
North Dakota. Sacagawea joined the crew.
Image © 2003 www.clipart.com.
12. Continental Divide – mountain ridge that separates river
sections flowing toward opposite sides of a continent.
Image © 2003 www.clipart.com.
13. The expedition took 2 years
and 4 months.
14. The Louisiana Purchase
doubled the size of the U.S.
15. What would have been the
benefits of finding an all water
route to the Pacific Ocean?
http://lewisandclark.co
m/links/links.html
16.
Found new plants/animals
Better maps
Source of the MO River
Discovered the Great Falls
17.
Compare
and
Contrast
Lewis and
Clark.
28 years
old
often
traveled
alone
32 years
old
proven
leaders
Jefferson’s
Meriwether
chief aid
Lewis
“man of
courage”
kept
journals
map
maker
William
Clark
captains
Governor
of
Louisiana
Governor
of
Missouri
large
family
raised
Sacajawea’s
son
18. Acts of Philanthropy
(based on Lewis and Clark’s Journey West)
The Nez Perce showed the expedition how to burn out the insides of logs to make
canoes.
The Clatsop showed the expedition where to find elk, which they could use for food
or to make clothing.
Sacajawea served as guide and interpreter for Lewis and Clark.
Clark took care of Jean Babtiste after Sacajawea died.
Lewis and Clark wrote to Jefferson as he requested and gave him detailed facts
about the animals and plants.
Zebulon Pike’s explorations gave U.S. better knowledge
about the lands in the Southwest.
Spanish Territory
Louisiana Territory
MS River
United States
New Orleans
Spanish Florida
Oregon Country
St. Louis
Lewis/Clark 1804
Continental Divide
Observe Your Map:
1. Whose expedition went into Spanish Territory?
2. Which city lay at the mouth of the Mississippi
River?
3. Whose expedition began in St. Louis?
4. Which mountain range is North America’s
continental divide?
5. Whose expedition went into land claimed by
Great Britain?
The Election of 1804:
• Jefferson easily won the election of 1804.
• George Clinton was the new running mate. He replaced
Aaron Burr to be the V.P.
Aaron Burr – secretly wanted to establish
an empire on the Western Frontier, and
killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
SECTION 3
New Threats from Overseas
(page 312)
Section 3: New Threats from Overseas
• Jefferson was committed to
Washington’s policy of neutrality.
Benefits of overseas trade:
•Merchants made money as
trading increased.
•Merchants traded with
China. (profit)
•Increased communication
with other continents
Risks of overseas trade:
•Conflict with Barbary States
•Britain and France violated
neutrality.
•Jefferson creates an embargo
that merchants hated.
•Smuggling a problem
Tribute - bribe
War Hawks
19. Trace the events that led up to Congress
declaring war on Britain.
Event
Explanation
Seizing of American ships
Britain and France were at war again, and neither country wanted the U.S. to trade with the other.
Both countries seized American ships to hurt each others trade and economy. Both countries
ignored America’s claims of neutrality.
British impressments
The British navy needed more sailors. British began impressment of men
which is the practice of forcing people into military service. Britain boarded
American vessels and took Americans. The U.S. was furious, and many
demanded war.
Embargo Act
Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act hoping to hurt France and
Britain’s trade. The Act did hurt the two countries but it hurt the U.S. more.
Many Americans protested the act. An embargo is a ban on trade.
Increased conflicts with
Native Americans
In the Ohio Valley, Native Americans were still resisting American
settlement. Violence led to warfare.
War Hawks
War Hawks were members from Congress in the South and West that were
wanting to go to war with Britain. They were persuasive and outspoken.
Many northerners believed the people and the President was influenced by
the War Hawks.
British blockade of
ports
To cut off American trade with France, British warships blockaded some of
America’s ports. This sparked war fever among many Americans.
James Madison
Dolly Madison
• The Embargo Act had been repealed and replaced.
• 20. James Madison – won the election of 1808 to
become the 4th President of the United States.
(Republican)
Madison’s votes came
mostly from the South
and the West.
21. June 18, 1812 – President Madison asked Congress
to declare war on Great Britain.
Section 5
CAUSES OF
THE WAR: Clip 1
Impressment
of
sailors
British
helping
Native
Americans
War Hawks
Seizing of
American
ships
(Chesapeake
Leopard
Affair)
Blockade
of
Ports
22. Disadvantages / American Problems
*The US was unprepared militarily:
Had a 16-ship navy vs. Britain’s
800 ships.
*Financially unprepared
*Relied on volunteers
*Regional differences
Jefferson had reduced military spending which left
the army and navy unprepared for war.
By spring of 1814, Britain and its allies had defeated
Napoleon.
Now Britain could send more troops to fight the U.S.
The White House Is Burning;
The British Are Coming, AGAIN!!
23. In 1814, the
British captured
and burned
Washington D.C.
24. Dolly Madison is credited with
saving many important
documents along with a
portrait of George Washington.
Battle of Fort McHenry: Troops protected city of Baltimore and
held off the British for 25 hours, finally forcing them to retreat.
Francis Scott Key watched the
battle from the deck of a
prisoner-of-war ship.
25. The War of 1812 inspired
Francis Scott Key to write
the Star Spangled Banner.
In 1931, Congress adopted it as
the national anthem.
And the rockets red glare
The bombs bursting in air…
-- Francis Scott Key
26. The Treaty of Ghent signed on Christmas Eve of 1814,
ended the War of 1812.
27. Effects of the War:
--U.S. won respect of foreign nations
--Nationalism increased
--destroyed the power of Indian tribes in the
Northwest Territory
28. The Presidents
• 1. George Washington
(1789-1797)
• 2. John Adams
(1797-1801)
• 3. Thomas Jefferson
(1801-1809)
• 4. James Madison
(1809-1817)
Concepts: The big ideas, important
generalizations about a topic
A concept is an idea that is timeless, abstract, broad
and can be shown through a variety of examples
How do I know that
Natural resources
affect the
living patterns
of
people?
29. Paragraph
• Analyze the concept of communication. Write a
paragraph describing how lack of
communication during Madison’s presidency
has convinced many historians that the War of
1812 should have never happened.