Republic of West Florida
The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived republic in the western region of Spanish West Florida for several months during 1810. It was then annexed and occupied by the United States. Spain, however, did not relinquish its claim until 1819 to any of the West Florida territory that was occupied by the U.S. The United States had claimed West Florida as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, a claim disputed by Spain, as it had ruled West Florida as a province separate from Spanish Louisiana since 1783. Before 1762 France had owned and administered the land west of the Perdido River as part of La Louisiane. In 1762 France secretly ceded its lands west of the Mississippi River plus the land west of the Perdido River to Spain. Excluding the island of New Orleans, the area between the Mississippi and Perdido Rivers became part of Spanish Florida.At the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, France ceded its remaining lands east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain, while Spain ceded its Florida colony to Great Britain. At the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, in which Spain had participated by conquering West Florida, Spain received both East and West Florida from Great Britain. The United States and Spain held long negotiations regarding the northern border of West Florida, concluding with Pinckney's Treaty in 1795. In 1800, under duress from Napoleon of France, Spain ceded Louisiana and the island of New Orleans to France, who promised to return them to Spain should France ever relinquish them. This cession did not include West Florida. In 1803 France then sold Louisiana to the United States. In the meantime, American settlers established a foothold in the area and resisted Spanish control, and the British settlers who had remained after Spanish takeover also resented Spanish rule, leading to a rebellion in 1810 and the establishment of the independent Republic of West Florida, with its capital at St. Francisville, in present-day Louisiana, on a bluff along the Mississippi River.