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Transcript
1
8th Grade
LEAP
Quiz Bowl Study Guide
Name ________________________
Geography:
1. Define Geography: The study of the Earth
2. Define the five themes of geography
A. Location- Where something is on Earth
B. Place- the location of something
C. Regions-areas on Earth with features that make them different from other areas
D. Movement- how ideas and products get from place to place….
Television, radio, computers, telephones, and transportation
E. Human-Environment Interactions-how humans affect the environment Such as litter, air
pollution and
how the environment affects humans
Such as climate, hurricanes, tornadoes
3. Name the 5 regions of the United States:
Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, Mid-west, and West
4. Physical Features: natural resources or landforms found in a place: mountains, rivers, forest
5. Human Features: features built by humans, such as
Buildings, roads, farms, bridges
6. Define Culture: people ways of life
7. Define Heritage: a culture that comes from the past and continues today
8. Give an example of a Primary Source: records made by people
who took part Or saw an event: diaries, photographs, artifacts
9. Give an example of a Secondary Source: a record of an event by someone
Was not at an event at the time it happened
*****Map Skills*****
1. Absolute Location: the exact location on Earth….the use of longitude and latitude lines
2. Relative Location: the location of something in relation to some other place
3. Map Scale: compares the distance on a map to the distance of the real world
4. Inset Map: a smaller map inside a larger map
2
5. Locator: a picture of a globe which shows where the main map is located within the state,
country, or continent
6. Map Key: explains what the symbols are the map stand for
7 Grid System: pattern of squares formed by the lines of latitude and longitude
8. Lines of Latitude: the east and west lines on a map called parallels
9 Lines of Longitude: North and south lines on a map called
Meridians
10. Equator: the parallel marked 0 degrees
divides the northern and southern hemispheres
11. Prime Meridian: the meridian marked 0 degrees
divides the western and eastern hemispheres
*****Early Peoples in the Americas*****
Migration: movement of people
Beringia: land bridge that connected Asia and North America
Archaelogists: scientists who study the cultures of people long ago
Artifact: objects made by people of long ago
Why did the hunters make their way to the Americas?
Because they were following the animals they hunted
What do Native American origin stories tell?
Origins of Native American people and how the world was made
Nomad: wanderers with no settled home
Extinct: animals that died out
Agriculture: farming
Tribe: a group of Native Americans who share a language or customs
Civilization: culture that usually has cities and a well developed
government
Pueblo: Spanish word for village
Why were Clovis points important to ancient Indians?
They were very sharp, making them the best weapons early
3
hunters had ever used.
How did life of the nomads compare to the life of the farmers?
The nomads lived in caves and temporary homes. They ate the
animals they hunted. Farmers built strong homes and started
villages. They ate a variety of plants.
Who was the greatest mound building civilization in the United States?
Culture
The Mississippian
hogan: cone-shaped shelter covering a log frame with bark and mud
kachina: spirits important to the Hopis gods of the sun, moon, and rain
kiva: underground rooms where ceremonies were held
adobe: a mixture of sandy clay and straw dried into bricks
What kinds of natural resources did the Pueblo peoples use to build
their homes?
Adobe, stones, mud, pine trees, and juniper trees
How did Navajos shelters contrast to those of the Hopis?
Navajos lived far apart in small shelters called hogans made of
wood, bark, and mud.
Hopis lived close together in pueblos made of adobe and rock.
dugout: boat made from a large hollowed-out log
barter: trade; exchange goods
potlatch: celebrations with feasting and dancing where the host gives away gifts as a sign of
wealth
clan: a group of families that are related to one another
pit house: long wooden house with no windows and built over a hole
totem pole: large wooden poles carved with shapes of people and
animals
What was the highway of the Northwest Coast?
Columbia River
What was the greatest trading center on the Columbia River?
The Dalles
How do the whale hunting methods of the Makah and Kwakiutls
compare?
Makahs hunted whales in the ocean, while the Kwakiutls only
took whales stranded on shore
4
How did the Inuit use the environment to meet their needs?
They used the animals for food, tools, and clothing. They used blocks of ice to build shelters.
lodge- circular house built over a shallow pit
sod- earth cut into blocks or mats held together by grass and its
roots
tepee- cone-shaped tent with wooden poles held together at the
top
What did the peoples of the plains make from buffalo skins?
Clothing, blankets, moccasins, and shelter
How did types of lodges differ?
Northern prairie lodges were covered with sod.
Southern prairie lodges were covered with grass or animal skins
What type of shelter did the Plains nomads have and why?
Tepees because they were easy to move (Kiowas)
How could a man become a chief of a Plains Indian tribe?
By proving himself a good hunter and a good leader
palisade- a wall surrounding villages made of tree trunks.
It protected villages from enemies and wild animals
slash and burn- a method of clearing land for farming that includes cutting and burning
wampum- beads made from cut and polished seashells
longhouse- a long wooden building in which several Iroquois families lived together
confederation- a loose group of governments working together
Why did the Eastern Woodlands settle in villages?
Because they farmed and got enough food where they lived
How did the lives of the Eastern Woodlands people compare and contrast? Northeast gathered
and hunted because of the rocky soil and mountains they could not grow food. Southern tribes
farmed because of the fertile soil. They grew corn, beans, and squash.
What was wampum used for?
Keep records, send messages, gifts, and exchanged for goods
Where did the Algonquians build their villages?
Near rivers or streams
What were the roles of the Algonquian leaders and chiefs?
One was the leader during peace time. One was the leader of war and one was in charge of
religious ceremonies.
5
What was the Iroquois League?
When the 5 largest Iroquois tribes shared the same government
What was the symbol of the Iroquois League?
5 arrows bound together to represent each nation.
Why did the Iroquois League form?
They fought a lot over land and the fighting had to stop because they were killing each other.
*****EXPLORATION*****
What did Johannes Gutenberg invent? A new way to print books that was easier and less costly
To which countries did Marco Polo and Nicolo’ Polo travel?
They traveled to Cathay (China), Myanmar (Burma), India, and Southwest Asia.
How did China limit its contact with other countries? By stopping all ocean voyages and by limiting
trade outside of China
How did Emperor Sunni Ali keep Songhay a strong empire? By encouraging more trade
On the eastern coast of Africa, what groups of people lived in city-states? Groups of people called
the Swahili
navigation – the method of planning and controlling the course of a ship
cartographer – a person who makes maps
astrolabe – an instrument formerly used to calculate one’s position compared to the sun, moon,
and stars
What sequence of events stopped Asian trade? First the Turks captured Constantinople. Then
they closed trade routes to Asia.
How did Prince Henry contribute to ocean exploration? He directed Portugal’s search for a water
route to Asia and set up a school for training sailors in navigation.
Why is Prince Henry known as “the explorer who stayed at home?” Prince Henry organized over
50 voyages, but never went on a single one! He also was known as Prince Henry the Navigator.
Who was the first explorer to sail around the Cape of Good Hope located at the southern tip of
Africa? Bartolomeu Dias
What led to the regular sailing of ships from Europe to Asia?
Vasco da Gama’s voyage around the Cape of Good Hope to India (Asia)
Who was the navigator who helped Vasco da Gama sail around the Cape of Good Hope to India
(Asia)? Ahmad Ibn Majid
isthmus – a narrow strip of land that connects two larger land areas
6
demarcation – a line that marks a boundary
treaty – an agreement between nations about peace, trade, or other matters
What sequence of events led to Columbus’s expedition? After Spain was united under one
religion, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to support Columbus’s voyage.
Columbian Exchange – Items brought from the Americas included cocoa, corn, potatoes, squash
tobacco, and turkeys. Items brought to the Americas were cattle, citrus fruits, diseases,
grains, horses, and sugar cane
Many believe Giovanni Caboto reached the coast of present-day Newfoundland. What did he think
he had found? Cathay
Why was Amerigo Vespucci’s discovery important? People realized that they had not discovered a
western route to Asia, but instead had discovered an unknown continent.
Who was the first European to reach what is known as the Pacific Ocean today? Vasco Nunez de
Balboa
What did Ferdinand Magellan and his crew prove? They proved that Europeans could reach Asia
by sailing west.
Who was the first to sail around the world? Ferdinand Magellan Victoria was the only ship to
successfully make it. Magellan was killed on an Philippine Island
What role did the Pope play in settling the argument over land ownership between Portugal and
Spain? He divided the world, giving Portugal all the lands east of the line of demarcation and
Spain all the lands west of the line.
conquistador – any of the Spanish conquerors in the Americas during the early 1500s
When Ponce de Leon discovered Florida, what was he really looking for? Bimini and the Fountain
of Youth
Why did the Indians help Cortes fight the Aztecs? Because they were unhappy with the Aztec rule
What did Cortes do after founding the settlement of Veracruz? He destroyed all but one ship to
make turning back to Spain impossible.
What was the purpose of Panfilo de Narvaez’s expedition? To conquer all the lands along the Gulf
of Mexico
Why were the Spanish leaders interested in finding the seven cities? They were told there was
great wealth there.
The route that Coronado took looking for the Seven Cities of Gold would later be known as what?
The Santa Fe Trail Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
7
How did the battle against the Mobile people hurt de Soto’s army? Most of their supplies were lost
in the fighting.
Who were the first Europeans to see the Mississippi River?
Hernando de Soto and his expedition party
Northwest Passage (Middle Passage)– a nonexistent waterway in North America thought to
connect the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
What sequence of events led Verrazano to look for a Northwest Passage? Frances I gave
Verrazano ships, sailors, and supplies to look for a Northwest Passage.
Who was the first European to reach the inland of what is now Canada? Jacques Cartier
What stopped Cartier from searching for a water route through the North American continent?
Rapids on the St. Lawrence River forced him to turn back.
What area of North America did Henry Hudson claim for the Dutch? Hudson River Valley
presidio – a Spanish fort
hacienda – a large estate where cattle and sheep are raised
How did the Spanish spread Christianity throughout its new land?
By building missions
How did the Indians’ lives change after the arrival of the Spanish?
They were forced to work against their will; Many died of hunger, overwork, and disease; The
way they worshipped changed; Some were treated cruelly
Why did Spain create settlements in North America?
to obtain riches, to expand its kingdom, and to convert Indians
What did Spain do to protect its colonies from those of other European
countries?
Established a buffer zone in northern New Spain called the borderlands
What was the first permanent European settlement in what is now the UnitedStates?
St. Augustine, Florida
Middle passage – the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean that enslaved Africans were forced to
endure
African Diaspora – the scattering of Africans all across the world as slaves
royal colony a colony ruled directly by a monarch
proprietary colony – a colony owned and ruled by one country
8
proprietor – an owner
Who was Samuel de Champlain?
cartographer sent to North America to map the places beavers were
found
What did the French want from the Native Americans?
beaver furs
What area did Louisiana cover in the 1600s? (Louisiana Territory)
From the Appalachians in the east to the Rockies in the west and from
the Great Lakes in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south
Who established trade with the Indians?
Jacques Cartier
Who claimed all the Mississippi River for France?
LaSalle
What is the name of the settlement on the St. Lawrence River that the
Hurons called “kebec”?
Quebec
What two people explored the Mississippi River?
Marquette and Joliet
Name the two brothers who began a settlement in Louisiana.
Iberville and Bienville
1. sea dog – a commander of English warships that attacked Spanish ships
carrying treasure
2. raw material – a resource that can be used to make a product
3. armada – a Spanish fleet of warships
4. Why did Queen Elizabeth I protect the English pirates?
The pirates shared their wealth with the English government.
5. Who was the English sea dog that led his crew around the world?
Francis Drake
6. List 4 reasons the English explored North America?
a. for its resources
b. for wealth
c. to increase land claims
9
d. to start colonies
7. Who was given permission by Queen Elizabeth to set up England’s first
colony in North America?
Sir Walter Raleigh
8. Where did the English first set up a colony?
Roanoke Island, just off the coast of present-day North Carolina
9. Why did this first group of colonists go back to England with Sir Francis
Drake when he visited the colony?
The ship bringing more food and supplies had not returned from England
cash crop – a crop that people raise to sell rather than use themselves
What was the House of Burgesses? Why was it important?
the first legislature in the English colonies; it was our country’s first form of representative
government
What was the first permanent English colony in America?
Jamestown, Virginia
Why did the Powhatan Confederacy fight the English colonists in
Jamestown?
The English seized their crops and took over more and more of the
Powhatan’s land.
What problems did the Jamestown colony have?
low supply of food and possible attack from Indians.
What rule did John Smith make for the colonists?
Anyone who did not work, did not eat.
Why did the English continue to try to settle an English colony in North
America despite the hardships?
They wanted to make money.
* * * * 13 Colonies * * * * *
New England Colonies:
Mayflower Compact – a legal contract in which the Pilgrims signed stating they agreed to
have fair laws to protect the general good
Charter – an official paper given to a person or business for land rights
Puritan - Member of the Church of England who settled in North American to follow Christian
beliefs in a more pure way
Sedition – speech or behavior that causes other people to work against the government
10
Triangular Trade Route – a trade route that linked the 13 colonies, England and west coast of
Africa
Indentured Servants - people who signed a contract to work four to seven years to pay for their
journey to America
Squanto – Indian who taught the Pilgrims how to fertilize the soil with fish remains and established
relations with the Wampanoag Indians
Community – The children were taught to read the bible families worked together to complete
chores. Women cooked spun and wove wool and sewed clothing. They also made soap and
butter and carried water dried fruit, and cared for livestock. Men repaired tools and worked
in the fields, chopped wood, and built shelters
John Winthorp – leader of the Puritans (made a covenant or promise with God to build an ideal
Christian community
Massachusetts Bay Colony – Politics and religion were closely linked. Government leaders were
also church members, and ministers had a great deal of power in the community
What occurred at town meetings? All town business was conducted at a town meeting. Every one
could attend, but only white, male, property owners could vote.
What were five of the public offices that Puritans could be elected to fill? Constable, town crier,
digger of graves, drummer, sweeper of the meetinghouse, fence viewer, & running a ferry.
What kinds of crops were grown on New England farms? Corn, rye, barley, wheat, pumpkins, and
other kinds of squash.
expel – to force to leave
consent – an agreement
fundamental – basic
frontier – the land that lies beyond settled areas
What was a requirement to live in Massachusetts Bay colony? People had to follow Puritan beliefs
or be expelled to England or other colonies
Why did Roger Williams leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony? He was expelled because he
believed people should not be punished for having different beliefs from the Puritan leaders.
people should be able to follow their own religious beliefs.
Who was a minister in Salem before founding Providence, Rhode Island? Roger Williams
Why was Anne Hutchinson expelled from the Puritan Church? She questioned the teachings and
authority of the Puritan ministers and started her own meetings stating her own beliefs.
Who settled Hartford, Connecticut with his followers? Thomas Hooker wanted religious freedom,
and thought that the leaders should do what the people wanted.
11
What were the Fundamental Orders and what did it allow? They were the first written plan of
government in North America and they allowed white male landowners to elect their leaders.
Who founded Strawberry Banke, which became Portsmouth, New Hampshire? David Thomson
What was King Phillip’s War? What happened to the settlers as a result? It was the war between
the settlers and the Pequot Indians over land. The settlers pushed farther north into Vermont and
New Hampshire.
What industries helped New England coastal towns prosper?
Fishing, whaling, trading, and shipbuilding
Why did New Bedford, Massachusetts prosper?
The colonists began catching whales in addition to hunting.
Why did whaling trips get longer and longer?
Whales became scarce close to shore due to the large amount of whaling, so whalers had
to sail farther out into the ocean.
Great Awakening- intense interest in religion in the 13 English colonies. Practiced mostly by
Puritans there who lived each hour in strict observance of the bible. a movement that called
for a rebirth of religious ways of life
Middle Colonies: Breadbasket Colonies
refuge – safe place
trial by jury – right of people accused of breaking the law to be tried by a group of
fellow
citizens
immigrant – a person who comes to a country to make a new home there
Piedmont – the foothills between the lowlands along the Atlantic coast and
Appalachian Mountains were called
backcountry – land beyond or “in back of” the area settled by Europeans
What did the Dutch call their colony in North America?
New Netherland
What groups of people did the Dutch welcome to New Amsterdam?
People from Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, and the first group of
Jewish people in North America
Why did King Charles II of England declare war on Holland?
The English thought the Dutch colony prevented their own colonies from expanding
What did the Dutch settlers do when Peter Stuyvesant tried to get them to fight the
English?
They refused to fight
What did the Society of Friends, or Quakers believe?
all people are basically good, violence is always wrong, refuse to carry guns or fight, solving
problems peacefully
12
Who became the owner of what is now Pennsylvania?
William Penn
What did farmers depend on as places to trade their surplus farm produce?
Market towns
What idea was Philadelphia founded on by William Penn?
People of diverse backgrounds could get along with each other
Why did Philadelphia develop into one of the busiest ports in the English colonies?
It was located near good land and waterways which contributed to its growth in shipping and
trading
What are some of Benjamin Franklin’s accomplishments as a citizen and publisher?
First trained firefighting company, first fire insurance company, paved streets, street lights,
first hospital, volunteer army, helped make Philadelphia a major publishing center in
colonies, published Pennsylvania Gazette and Poor Richard’s Almanack
What was the name of the road that people traveled on to move inland from
Pennsylvania? Great Wagon Road
Southern Colonies:
Bacon’s Rebellion – Nathaniel Bacon thought the farmers Jamestown should expand their lands
onto the Indian lands. The governor tried to stop him and he attacked and burned
Jamestown
Maryland – refuge for Catholics a proprietary colony set up by George Calvert
Toleration Act of 1649 – supporting religious tolerance in the English colonies
The Carolinas – Land given by King Charles II to his supporters In 1712 they split into 2 sections
North and South Carolina. They colonies grew cotton, rice and indigo in which they required
slave labor.
Georgia – 1732 land grant given to George Oglethorpe debtors were sent here to work off their
sentences and make a new start. At first slavery was outlawed, but colonists grew upset
and coastal Georgia had large rice plantations and thousands of slaves
Olaudah Equiano – a slave in the southern colonies who recorded his experiences
Slave Codes – laws to control slaves. They could not hold meetings or own weapons. The
colonists feared a revolt
The American Revolution
Causes- “Taxation Without Representation”- Colonists did not feel they should pay taxes to
the British crown without representation in the British Parliament. The British government
was not protecting the interest of the colonists.
Boston Massacre- British soldiers fire into an unarmed crowd of colonist killing 5. Further
aggravated tensions between the colonists and the British.
Stamp Act- first tax (on all paper products) imposed on Americans by the British.
Townshend Acts- Placed duties on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea. Tax collectors could
search for smuggled goods. Laws took power away from the colonial governments.
Colonists began to boycott British goods.
13
Tea Act- Allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists making
British tea cheaper than colonial tea.
Boston Tea Party- Colonial protest against the Tea Act in which a group of colonists
boarded British Tea ships and dumped the tea into Boston Harbor.
Patrick Henry- “Taxation without representation is tyranny” – the American colonists did not
feel they should be taxed by the British crown without having a voice in the British
Parliament.
Intolerable Acts- (Coercive Acts) - Parliament punished the colonies for the Boston Tea
Party by closing Boston Harbor. Tightened government control over the colonies.
1st Continental Congress- Meeting of the colonial delegates in Philadelphia to decide how to
respond to British abuses. Called for militias in the13 colonies for defense
2nd Continental Congress- 1st attempt at a republican government in the colonies. Created
the Continental Army- led by George Washington while trying to make peace by issuing the
Olive Branch petition to King George.
Battle of Saratoga- Turning point of the American Revolutionary War. Greatest victory for
the American forces- led to Spain and France sending foreign aid to support the Americans.
Battle of Yorktown- Last major battle of the American Revolution. British surrender.
Patriots- American colonists who fought for independence from Great Britain during the
American Revolution.
Loyalist- Colonists who sided with Britain during the American Revolution.
Sons of Liberty- Secret society formed by the colonists to fight back against British abusessometimes used violence to frighten tax collectors, helped stage the Boston Tea Party,
organized boycotts.
Committees of Correspondence- created to help towns and colonies share information
about resisting British laws.
Recruitment of slaves- British military promised any slave who helped them fight the
Americans would be freed. Washington/Americans then began allowing free African
Americans to serve in the Continental Army.
Benedict Arnold- American officer who later betrayed the American cause by planning to
surrender West Point to the British during the American Revolution.
Thomas Paine- author of “Common Sense”- pamphlet that inspired Americans to believe
that it was common sense for Americans to want their independence from Britain. Called for
an immediate declaration of independence from England.
Declaration of Independence- Written after the American Revolution began, 7/4/1776, by
Thomas Jefferson. Established principles of government not rules.
Includes “All men are created equal.” “Consent of the governed” The government agrees to
“protect the life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” of the people. If the government does
not, it breaks the contract and no longer has the right to govern. Proclamation of freedom.
Valley Forge- Where American soldiers spent the winter waiting for supplies to arrive- many
died from malnutrition and illness.
Treaty of Paris of 1783- Peace agreement that officially ended the American Revolutionary
War and established British recognition of the independence of the
United States.
Foundations of the American Political System
 Articles of Confederation- the first central government of the United States. Weaknessescreated a weak central government with no executive or judicial branch (one branch)legislative with few powers, no checks and balances, most power held by the states.
14

Shay’s Rebellion- Uprising of Massachusetts farmers to protest high taxes, debt, and
foreclosures. Showed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation. Showed they could
not protect the freedoms of the people. Americans called for a stronger central government.
Led to the Constitutional Convention.
 Federalist Papers- A series of essays that defended and explained the Constitution and
tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the national
government.
 Constitutional Convention- Meeting held in Philadelphia in which delegates from the states
wrote the Constitution.
Government
U.S. Constitution: Principles
Popular sovereignty- the idea that political authority belongs to the people.
Respect for individual liberties
Checks and balances
Due process of law- the fair application of the law.
Separation of powers- the division of the federal government into 3 branches.
Consent of the governed- the political theory that people allow themselves to be governed.
Citizens should have the final say.
The three branches of the government- Executive- carries out the laws, legislative- makes
the laws, judicial- interprets the laws.
Key positions within each branch of government
Executive- President, Vice President, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Cabinet
positions.
Legislative- Speaker of the House of Representatives, president of the Senate, House and
Senate majority leaders.
Judicial- Supreme Court justices, chief justice, federal district judge
Qualifications and terms:
President and Vice President- 35 years old, Natural born citizen of the United States,
resident of the U.S. for 14 years. 4 year terms- 2 term limit
Senate- 30 years old, resident of the state you want to represent, citizen of the U.S. for at
least 9 years prior to the election, 6 year terms
House of Representatives- 25 years old, resident of the state you want to represent, citizen
of the U.S. for 7 years, 4 year terms
Supreme Court Justices- Appointed by the President, no term limit.
Federalism- the division of power between the national and state governments.
Powers of the federal government according to the U.S. Constitution- print money, establish
a postal service, approve treaties, declare war, raise an army.
Concurrent powers- powers shared by the federal government and state governments.
Examples: establish courts, tax citizens, pass laws, enforce laws.
Types of government:
absolute or constitutional monarchy- a political system in which the head of state is a king or
queen ruling to the extent allowed by a constitution
direct democracy- form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly
participate in the decision-making process.
republic- a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote
and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
oligarchy- a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a
dominant class or clique; government by the few.
15
autocracy- place ruled by one person: a country governed by a single ruler who has
unlimited power.
totalitarian dictatorship- Complete control by the government. A modern autocratic
government in which the state involves itself in all facets of society, including the daily life of
its citizens.
Two-Party system- U.S. has this- Democrats and Republicans
Major purpose of government:
1. Ensure domestic tranquility- peace on the home front
2. Provide for the common defense- military to protect us from foreign threats
3. Promote the general welfare- programs to provide for those in need
4. Secure the blessings of liberty- protect the rights and freedoms granted to the
citizens of America
5. Make laws- to avoid chaos and create stability
Virginia Plan- (large state plan) Proposed at the Constitutional Convention- the national
government would have supreme power and a legislative branch would have 2 houses
determined by population.
New Jersey Plan- (small state plan)- Create a one house legislature with equal
representation instead of representation based on population.
Great Compromise- Two houses of Congress were formed. In the House of
Representatives a state’s population would determine representation. In the Senate
representation would be equal- 2 senators regardless of population or size.
3/5 Compromise- Allowed a slave state to count 3 for every 5 of its slaves toward the state’s
total population when determining representation. Gave the south more representation in
the House of Representatives than if no slaves were counted, but less than if all were
counted.
Checks and Balances- Created to keep one branch from becoming too powerful. President
can veto laws of Congress, Congress can override vetoes with a 2/3 vote. President can be
impeached. Congress declares war not the President, but President is the commander in
chief. President appoints Supreme Court justices, but Congress must approve.
Federalists- Those in favor of the new Constitution. (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison,
George Washington, John Jay, Benjamin Franklin) Federalists Papers- collection of articles
written in favor of ratification (approval) of the U.S. Constitution. 9 out of 13 states needed
for ratification.
Anti-federalists- Opposed ratification of the Constitution. (George Mason, Samuel Adams,
Patrick Henry) Feared the new constitution would threaten civil rights like freedom of
speech, the press, religion etc.
Bill of Rights- 1st 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution. Explains the rights and freedoms
granted to the U.S. citizens. Included in the Constitution to satisfy the anti-federalist by
specifying that their rights would be protected.
1st amendment- Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, petition.
Amendments- official change, correction or addition to a law or constitution.
How a Bill Becomes a Law- proposed by the people, introduced by the House of
Representatives, debated, if passed it goes to the Senate. Senate can pass it or kill it. If
passed it goes to the President he can sign it or veto it. if he signs it, it becomes a law.
Citizenship and the Constitution
Qualifications and requirements for U.S. citizenship- Birth in the U.S., Birth to American
parents abroad, naturalization (residency, citizenship test, oath of allegiance)
Rights- First Amendment freedoms, due process, voting
16
Responsibilities- military service, jury duty, paying taxes, obeying laws, holding public office,
voting.
Impeach- to bring formal charges against an elected official
Veto- to cancel or reject- Presidential power
Pardons- Presidential power to grant freedom from punishment to persons convicted of
federal crimes or facing criminal charges.
Due Process- one’s rights when accused of violating a law- law must be fairly applied.
Draft- System of required service in the armed forces.
Interest groups- Group of people who share common interests for a political action.
A New Nation
Electoral College- The group that actually elects the president based upon the popular vote
in each state. Electors= # of Senators (2) + # of Representatives-(based on population)
Brown v. Board of Education- Supreme Court declared segregation in public schools to be
unconstitutional.
Precedent is an action of decision that later serves as an example.
Bank of the United States was the first national bank in U.S. history- created to provide
security for the U.S. economy.
Jeffersonian Era
Judicial Review is the Supreme Courts power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
Louisiana Purchase is where the U.S. purchased the land between the Mississippi River
and the Rocky Mountains from France for 15 million dollars. The purchase doubled the size
of the United States. Lewis and Clark selected by President Jefferson to explore the
territory for the government.
Impressments-forcing American sailors to serve in the British Navy.
War of 1812
Causes- Impressment of American sailors, Interference with American shipping, British
military aid to Native Americans.
Effects- Increase sense of national pride, American manufacturing boosted, Native
American resistance weakened.
Battle of New Orleans was the greatest U.S. victory in the War of 1812. Took The
Americans led by Andrew Jackson defeated the British led by General Edward Pakingham
in New Orleans 2 weeks after the war had ended. Jackson did not know the war had ended
because communication was slow.
Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.
American Identity
Monroe Doctrine is the idea that no other country can colonize the Americas or it will be
received as a threat or hostility.
Isolationism- avoidance of international relations: a government policy based on the belief
that national interests are best served by avoiding economic and political alliances with
other countries.
Nationalism is a strong sense of pride and loyalty to your nation.
Jacksonian Era
Spoils System was the act of giving government jobs to your supporters.
States Rights was the belief that the state should govern its people on certain issues if the
national government has not set a ruling on those issues previously.
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Indian Removal Act authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the
Mississippi River. Moved the Indians from the East Coast to the Great Plains
Trail of Tears- the forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to
Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Resulted in the deaths of nearly one-fourth of the Cherokee
people. President Jackson and other leaders wanted the land for American settlement and
farming.
Jackson supported increased federal power and a national bank.
Trails to the West
Oregon Trail was a trail that settlers used to move to the west- stretched through the Great
Plains from western Missouri to the Oregon Territory.
Effects of westward expansion on Native Americans in the 1800’s- Natives were forced to
give up their land, some were killed.
Alamo was a small abandoned mission in Texas where there was a battle that Mexico won.
Santa Anna was the Mexican commander. All of the Texans at this battle were killed.
Manifest Destiny was the belief that it was the settlers god given right to move to the west.
To spread from sea to shining sea.
Gold Rush-49ers were settlers who moved to California in search of gold. Led to a large
population increase in the California region.
Gadsden Purchase- U.S. purchase of land from Mexico, (for $10 million dollars), that
included the southern part of present day Arizona and New Mexico. Set the existing
boundary with Mexico.
Homestead Act- An act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1862, promising ownership of 160
acres of public land to a citizen who lived on and cultivated it for five years.
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution was when the factories replaced many handmade products. (Steam
engines)
Mass Production is where parts and goods are produced in large quantities using
interchangeable parts. (identical goods)
Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney and it removed the seeds from cotton, leading to an
increase in the production of cotton and an increase in slavery.
Trade unions tried to improve working conditions.
Transportation Revolution caused the rapid growth in the speed and convenience of
transportation. (Steamboat, Steam Engine-railroad, canals, plow)
Plantations were large farms where cash crops were grown. (Cotton)
Nativists- U.S. citizens that opposed immigration for fear of losing their jobs.
Protective tariffs- tariff protecting a country's economy: A tariff on imports whose primary
purpose is to protect a country's domestic economy rather than to create revenue.
North- experienced rapid urbanization and industrialization; the south saw a growth in the
agricultural economy and slavery.
Reformation of the Nation
Second Great Awakening- reform of different social issues. Horace Mann- public education,
Dorthea Dix-mental health and prisons, temperance, suffrage, abolition.
Abolitionists were people that wanted to end slavery in America.
Underground Railroad – network of people who helped slaves escape to the north by
providing transportation and hiding places. (Series of safe houses to the north led by Harriet
Tubman).
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Kansas-Nebraska Act said that voters could choose whether or not to allow slavery in those
states. Voided the Missouri Compromise.
William Lloyd Garrison- Published the anti-slavery newspaper the Liberator and helped
found the Anti-Slavery Society, promoting emancipation and racial equality.
Dred Scott- Enslaved African who sued for his freedom stating that his time living in a free
state made him a free man. The Supreme Court ruling upheld slavery and declared the
Missouri compromise unconstitutional.
John Brown- Famous abolitionist. Seized the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, to
encourage a slave revolt.
Fredrick Douglass- Escaped slave who wrote a biography about his life as a slave and
founded the abolitionist newspaper the North Star.
Seneca Falls Convention- First national women’s rights convention. Argued for women’s
suffrage and equality. Leaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony
Civil War
Wave of immigration prior to the Civil War- Potato famine in Ireland, Gold in California
Causes- Disagreement over slavery, Economic differences, Political differences
Effects- Slavery ends, 620,000 Americans killed , southern economy in ruins.
Advantages and Disadvantages:
North- Advantages- Large population, more railroads, Industry, exports
Disadvantages: Neither side was prepared for war.
Fort Sumter- federal outpost in South Carolina that was attacked by the Confederates
sparking the Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation and
wanted to preserve the Union.
Jefferson Davis was the president of the Confederacy after the southern states seceded
from the union after the election of Abraham Lincoln.
Bull Run was the first battle that the South won in the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee was the commander of the Southern/Confederate Army. Successful until he
was forced to surrender to General Grant at Appomattox.
Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War. The Union won at the battle of
Gettysburg. Also a turning point in the war- turned the tide against the Confederates..
Ulysses S. Grant was the commander of the Union/Northern Army during the Civil War.
Appomattox was the place where the South- General Lee was forced to surrender to the
North- General Grant, ending the Civil War.
Emancipation Proclamation- issued by President Abraham Lincoln- freed the slaves in
areas rebelling against the Union.
Reconstruction
13 amendment abolished slavery in the United States.
14 amendment gave citizenship to African Americans
15 amendment gave African American men the right to vote.
Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court case that set up the precedent of separate but equal.
Jim Crowe enforced segregation in the Southern states.
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World History:
Places and Regions
 Land and climatic conditions good for human settlement- fresh water, fertile soil, mild
climate, located near a body of water.
 Slash and burn farming- refers to the cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create
fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a variety of other purposes. It is
sometimes part of shifting cultivation agriculture, and the ash serves as fertilizer.
 Physical features:
Nile River- irrigation- (A way of supplying water to an area of land), silt- (a mixture of fertile
soil and tiny rocks that can make land ideal for farming), delta- (a triangle shaped area of
land made from soil deposited by a river), pharaohs-(rulers of Egypt).
The Rosetta Stone- A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form
of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
Tigris and Euphrates River- (Land between two rivers)- Fertile Crescent or Mesopotamia,
area from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean. Flooding created good fertile soil. They
used canals to control the flooding.
Bering Land Bridge- A link between Alaska and Siberia that was above sea level during the
Ice Age between 13,000 and 10,000 years ago and provided a route for prehistoric people
and animals to cross into the Americas.
Himalaya Mountains- located in Asia- eastern border between India and China. Served as
protection.
Indus River- Pakistan, India. Farming found here 5,000 years before Egypt
 Fertile Crescent- Area of rich farmland in Southwest Asia where the first civilizations
began. People in this area used terrace farming- A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly
cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to slow or prevent the rapid
surface runoff of irrigation water. The plow increased agricultural productivity.
Human Systems
 Reasons for migration- searching for food and water, climate changes- flood or drought,
trade opportunities, escape from religious or political persecution.
(Persecution=Punishment)
 Physical features that stop migration- mountains, deserts, waterfalls
 Cultural diffusion- the process by which a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior
pattern is spread from one society to another
Examples: Trade by the Phoenicians (spread their alphabet)
Spread of the Islamic Empire- spread their religion.
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 Crusades- A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia fought
for control of the Holy Land from 1097 to 1291.
 Silk Road- A network of trade routes that stretched across Asia from China to the
Mediterranean Sea. Silk was China’s main trade item, because they were the only one’s
who knew how to make it. If you told someone the secret of how to make it you would be
punished by death, because their profit would decrease.
 Constantinople- capital of the Roman Empire.
Economic Interdependence
 The theory that no group or country can produce everything it needs. People depend on
other people to produce most of the goods and services required.
 Goods that were traded among ancient civilizations- cotton, papyrus, silk, wood, spices,
ivory, copper
Environment and Society
 Human adaptations- levees and dams, irrigation, canals, trading, native crops.
World History
 Hunter Gatherers- Wanderers, nomads- no permanent home-moved from place to place in
search of food.
Types of food- wild animals, berries, fish
Animal skins and bones- used for shelter, clothing, tools, weapons
 Early Tools- any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a
task. Examples: chopper (stone), hand ax, spear, flint
 Natural Resources- needed for development of new civilizations, fresh water supply, rich
soil, good climate for farming.
Protection- Natural barriers, mountains, waterfalls, desert, cataracts (rapids)
Man Built Barriers- Great Wall of China- built for protection from invaders
 What led to the development of agricultural societies?
Domestication: The changing of plants and animals for human use- (animals- carrying
heavy loads)
Reasons:
Cultivation: the planting, growing, and harvesting of crops or plants, or the preparation of
land for this purpose.
Agricultural Revolution: period of technical improvements, such as new machinery, better
drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems
of crop rotation.
 Agriculture replaces hunting and gathering, so villages and small cities formed.
Specialization develops due to agriculture- focus on new types of jobs- people perform
tasks they are good at. (pottery makers, blacksmiths)
Civilizations form- cultures develop with religion, government and specialization.
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 Major Rivers: Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, Nile, Huang-He (River of Sorrows- because of
the floods it caused which destroyed homes and crops) Rivers provide life (fresh water and
fertile soil needed for farming).
 Characteristics of the early river valley civilization
Mesopotamia
Ziggurats- pyramid shaped temples (in Sumer)
Code of Hammurabi- world’s oldest written code of laws. Set of 282 laws that dealt with
almost every part of daily life.
Sumerian city states- A political unit consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside.
Cuneiform- The world’s first system of writing; developed in Sumer
Egypt- ruled by pharaohs, pyramids and mummification, hieroglyphics, irrigation methods,
papyrus used for writing.
Indus River
Planned cities- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Monsoon- wind pattern that causes wet and dry seasons
Agricultural society- life revolved around farming.
Caste system- division of Indian society into groups based on rank, wealth, or occupation.
China- ideographs, warrior class, Mandate of Heaven/rule by dynasty (a political theory of
ancient China in which those in power were said to be given the right to rule from a divine
source- heaven), silk was the main trade item in China.
 Methods of food storage improved (salt used to preserve food), agricultural developmentsirrigation, plow, structured government- leaders, elected officials
 Spartans- Superior military, believed military power was the way to provide security and
protection for their city. Strong boys in Sparta trained for the military, weak boys were left to
die. Government- ruled by two kings who jointly led the army. Elected officials had the
most power.
 Hyskos- from Southwest Asia- used horses, chariots, and advanced weapons to conquer
Lower Egypt. Ruled Lower Egypt for 200 years.
 Aryans- Invaders from central Asia. Skilled warriors- used chariots and advanced weapons.
Took control of the Indus Valley. We learned about the Aryans through the Vedas (religious
writings). They were nomads- eventually became farmers in small villages. Villages were
governed by rajas. Wrote in Sanskrit the most important language of Ancient India.
 Hittites- Built a strong kingdom in Asia Minor. Successful because they had 2 key military
advantages- 1. Master ironworkers, could make the strongest weapons 2. Successfully
used the chariot- wheeled horse-drawn cart used in battle.
 Minoans- Early trading culture in Greece- superior shipbuilders, traders. Volcano erupted
causing a flood, ruining crops, and covering the city in ash.
 Mycenaean- Early trading culture in Greece- first people to speak Greek, built fortresses all
over the Greek mainland. Took over Crete and became the major traders in the eastern
Mediterranean.
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 Introduction of iron weapons in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region- plowincreased agriculture production. More crops could be grown and harvested more quickly.
Military activity- iron weapons were stronger and more effective in battle.
 Phoenician trade- Phoenician trading partners- Egypt and Greece, exchange of goods and
information such as phonetic alphabet, indigo dye and cloth, nautical and shipbuilding skills.
 Forms of Writing- Greek alphabet, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Chinese symbols, Indus Valley
pictographs.
 Cultural achievements of Greece- established direct democracy ( 1st democracy) in Athens,
architecture, polis (city-states), literature such as epic poems and plays.
 Alexander the Great- One of the greatest military commanders in history. Conquered the
Persian Empire. Expansion of the Greek empire and spread Greek culture throughout his
empire.
 Roman Republic- the phase of ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican
form of government. Government based on separation of powers and checks and
balances.
 United States- Looked at the Romans/Greeks when creating their democracy.
Religions
 Islam- Founded in the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Asia. Mohammed is their
leader/prophet. Their bible is the Quran and their god is called Allah.
 Judaism- Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)- record of their history. First monotheistic religion.
Capital is Jerusalem.
 Christianity- religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth that developed in Judea
at the beginning of the first century. Has spread throughout the world.
 Buddhism- Most popular religion in Asia. Buddhism came from the Hindu religion. They
believed in reincarnation. Taught life is full of suffering and you should work to end your
suffering and achieve peace. You do this by being happy with what you have and not
yearning for things you do not have.
 Hinduism- India is mostly Hindu. Their bible is a collection of books called the Vedas. The
Vedas create the caste system in India. Reincarnation- all will begin another life after death.
You could be reincarnated into a higher caste if you lived a good life, or moved down if you
did not.
 Emperor Constantine: First Roman emperor to become a Christian. Moved the empire’s
capital from Rome to Constantinople and removed the bans on Christianity.
 Roman Crusades- wars called for by the pope (Christian) to rid the Holy Land (Israel) of the
Moslems.
 Jewish Migration- after the Jews revolted against the Romans and lost they were forced to
migrate to the Mediterranean region because they were banned from Jerusalem by the
Romans. If they were found there they would be killed.
 Polytheism- (Egyptian, Hindu) belief in more than one god.
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 Monotheism- (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) belief in one god.
 Confucianism- (China) central idea is respect within the family. Respect authority, morality,
public service and duty.
 Divide of the Roman Empire- Diocletian became emperor in the late 200’s. He felt the
empire was too large for one person to rule, so he ruled the eastern half and named a coemperor to rule the west.
 Romance languages- languages that developed from Latin, such as Italian, French,
Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian.
 Goths- an uncivilized or barbaric person
Early Middle Ages
 Feudalism
Vassals (a knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land in medieval Europe)
Serfs (not quite slaves and worked on the manors of lords and nobles)
Knights (warrior in medieval Europe who fought on horseback )
Priests (person who performs religious ceremonies),
Lords (person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king)
Manors (large estate owned by a knight or lord)
 Effects of the plague1. Caused the pharaoh to release the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt.
2. Black Death- series of plagues that killed over 25 million Europeans. Brought
on as a result of trade. Affected the economy by causing a shortage of workers
and causing a middle class to emerge.
 Charlemagne- ruler of the Franks (France). His armies spread through western Europe,
forming an empire. Believed in education, learning and the spread of Christianity.
Innovations
Cannon - a weapon that fired heavy iron balls or other projectiles through a simple iron
tube.
Telescope- a device for making distant objects appear nearer and larger by means of
compound lenses or concave mirrors.
Magnetic Compass- an instrument used to indicate magnetic north and other directions,
containing a magnetic needle that swings horizontally around a circle marked
in degrees or with the points of the compass.
Astrolabe- used to determine the altitude of the sun and used for navigation.
Lateen sail- improved sailing
Frigate- warship
Galleon- large sailing ship
Caravel- a light sailing ship with two or three masts
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Louisiana History
Culture:
Components of culture include: religion, food, music, language, and ethnicity
Music that is unique of Louisiana culture are Jazz, blues, zydeco, gospel, and spirituals.
The religious purpose of Mardi Gras is the festive time before Lent. Lent begins Ash Wednesday.
Mardi Gras means “fat Tuesday”.
Regions:
Sportsman Paradise: north LA. Many lakes, hills, and forests, home to hunting and fishing.
Crossroads: center of the state small towns, farming, rural areas
Cajun Country: southwest LA small towns that are 10 miles apart Cajun culture Prairie Cajun and
Wetland Cajun. Prairie Cajun is mostly agriculture and livestock. Wetland Cajun is fishers
and trappers
Plantation Country: South central LA Home to Louisiana’s greatest plantations along the
Mississippi River, Baton Rouge is at the center of this region
Greater New Orleans Region: Southeastern LA New Orleans is focal point. Described as the
cosmopolitan an American City that is more like a European one.
The Florida Parishes is different than other southern regions because it was once part of the
colony of West Florida. It includes the following parishes: Washington, St. Tammany,
Tangipahoa, Livingston, East Feliciana, West Feliciana St. Helena, and East Baton Rouge.
People:
An ethnic group is a group of people who share the same traditions, beliefs, and patterns of living
including language, religion, customs, and food.
Acadians: When English took control of Novia Scotia they forced the Acadians to believe in their
king and follow their rules. The Acadians did not want to so the British exiled them from
Nova Scotia
African Americans: Came to Louisiana several different ways. One was by the slave trade from
West Africa. Another way was by being a slave from the West Indies. Free people of color
came from the West Indies as well.
French-African people born in Louisiana is referred to as Creole.
Today Creole means native of Louisiana.
American Indians have been in Louisiana for centuries. Some Native tribes include Chitimacha,
Choctaw, Coushatta, Tunica-Biloxi, and Houma.
Anglo culture developed in the British Colonies on the eastern coast of the United States.
Scots-Irish established farms in North Louisiana. Culture is Upland South and the accent is
Southern. The religion is Protestant.
Germans immigrated in the early colonial period. They blended with the dominant French culture.
On December 6, a procession celebrating the religious feast of St. Nicholas goes from
House to house
Hispanics: Islenos are the oldest and best preserved Hispanic culture in Louisiana. They
descended from the Canary Islands. Most reside in St. Bernard Parish. The Hispanics in
Sabine Parish comes from Texas. Cuban community developed in New Orleans. The most
recent Hispanic immigrants have come from Mexico.
Italians: Farmers who raised vegetables and strawberries. Largest group lives in Independence.
Custom of St. Joseph Altar is now a Louisiana culture It is a feast for friends.
Croatians: Came from the Adriatic Sea and brought sailing skills and developed the oyster
industry. Most live in Plaquemines Parish.
Filipino: Shrimpers
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Vietnamese: Fishermen in Louisiana’s coastline.
Rivers, Lakes, and Bayous:
Three largest rivers in Louisiana are The Mississippi, The Red, and the Atchafalaya
Waterways that serve as boundaries of Louisiana are: The Mississippi between Mississippi and
Louisiana, The Pearl River between lower Louisiana and Mississippi, The Sabine River and
Toledo Bend between Louisiana and Texas, and the Gulf of Mexico in the South.
The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway extends from the Panhandle of Florida to Brownsville, TX. It
provides a channel for ships. Because of this channel Lake Charles is Louisiana’s third
largest port.
Rivers
Mississippi River is a vital part of Louisiana. The Great River, or River of the Holy Spirit. The
basin of the Mississippi is the body of the nation. It drains at least part of 31 states.
Atchafalaya River means long river. It gets the water from the Red River as well as 30% of the
volume from the Mississippi River.
Lakes:
The largest manmade lake is Toledo Bend. It is also the nation’s fifth largest water reservoir.
Lake Pontchatrain is the largest natural lake. Lake Borgne and Lake Maurepas are lagoonal lakes
that open into the lake. It has brackish water (a mixture of salt water and fresh water).
An interesting cutoff lake is Cane River Lake. It formed when the Red River took a shortcut and
left the town without a river.
Bayou comes from Choctaw language means creek. The French called it Sleeping Water because
of the slow moving currents. Some are long and deep while others are less than a mile and
shallow enough to walk across.
Bayou Lafourche is called the longest main street in the world because so many people live there.
Bayou Teche offered navigation route fro steamboats.
Natural Regions:
Elevation: the height of a place above se level
Relief: the difference between the highest point and lowest point in a given region.
Mississippi Flood Plain Region
Mississippi Flood Plain: follows the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. the level land along a
river that is likely to flood. The soil is alluvial (deposited by the river). The soil is fertile and
produces natural vegetation and agricultural crops. Cotton is one of those crops.
The Natural Levee: Natural riverbanks built up over time by the silt deposited by flooding. About
10-15 feet high. Trees that grow there are usually willows, cottonwoods, and sycamores.
Swamp: lowest part of the river basin. Cypress and tupelo gum trees live in the swamp. Swamp is
water with trees.
The Passes: routes the Mississippi River takes to merge with the Gulf of Mexico. Can be called a
Delta because it is triangular shaped. The estuary (where the river meets the sea) the water
changes from freshwater to saltwater. The vegetation is marsh grasses.
Terraces Region
Terraces Region is the old Mississippi Floodplain. Three divisions Blufflands, Prairies, and
Flatwoods.
Blufflands: are the old natural levees and are the highest points They have vertical slopes on high
bluffs. Magnolia trees, dogwood, holly, ash and oak trees along with ferns, green mosses,
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and wildflowers.
Prairies: Flat part of the old natural levees Grasses and wildflowers grow there. Common plants
are broom sedge, bluestem sedge.
Flatwoods: Drains well allows trees to grow. Pine and hardwood forests called pineywoods
Marsh Region: wet, treeless prairie covered with water and grasses. Marsh is found along the
coast. Migrating birds return to feed on the marsh. 180 species have been seen from
Canadian geese to hummingbirds. The region closest to the Gulf of Mexico is called the salt
marsh whose waters are brackish. Freshwater marsh has different plants such as cattail and
iris
Salt Domes:
Found in the salt marsh. They have mineral treasures such as sulphur, petroleum and salt. 5
islands Avery Island, Weeks Island, Jefferson Island, Cote Blanche, and Belle Isle.
Avery Island Tabasco Factory because of the amount of salt.
Weeks Island store petroleum part of the emergency reserve supply maintained by the Department
of Energy
Red River Valley Region: Northwestern corner to central part of Louisiana. Single stream with
natural levees and low-lying areas. Red fertile soil comes from Oklahoma and Texas. Trees
such as willow, cottonwood, sweet gum, and sycamore.
Hills Region: Much of North Louisiana as well as the toe of the boot Refers to rock formation
Ridges formed in the uplift as erosion wore down the surrounding rock. These ridges are
alled wolds. Contains the highest point of Louisiana called Driskill Mountain 535 feet. Iron
akes the soil reddish color and is not fertile.
Economics:
Goods physical items such as foods, clothing, cars, and houses
Services activities people do for a fee such as car repairs, painting, and
concerts
Consumer a person who buys a good or service
Producer a person or business who uses resources to make goods or
provide services
Natural Resources a part of the natural environment such as water, trees
or minerals
Human Resources people who produce the goods or provide the services
Capital Resources are the money and property – factories, tools, bridges
machines, and other items – used to produce goods and services
Scarcity when people need and want more than the available resources
can provide
Opportunity cost the value of your second choice, the next best alternative
Supply the quantity of a good or service offered for sale
Demand the quantity of a good or service consumers are willing to buy
Profit the amount left after costs are subtracted from the prices
Economist a person who studies the economy
Traditional Economy customs, habits, and beliefs determine how the four
basic economic questions are answered
Command Economy the government controls the economy and answers
The four basic economic questions
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Market Economy individuals answer the four basic economic questions
based on supply and demand
Scarcity requires both producers and consumers to make choices. The unlimited needs and wants
of must be balanced with limited resources in the world.
What are the 4 basic economic questions?
1. What to produce?
2. How to produce?
3. How much to produce?
4. For whom to produce?
What are the 3 basic kinds of economy?
Traditional economy, command economy, and market economy
Barter – trading goods and services without money
Mercantilism - the government of the mother country controlled its
resources and its markets in order to acquire wealth. Colonies were
expected to buy goods and services only from the mother country
Smuggling – trading goods and services with other countries other than the
mother country. It was illegal
Why did Louisiana struggle in the mercantile economy under French and Spanish rule?
Neither France or Spain gave the colonists enough supplies; the
colonists changed the economy to meet their needs and developed
the frontier exchange economy.
What was the Frontier Exchange Economy?
People trapped furs, made their own goods, grew their own crops, and
traded with their nearby neighbors
What were the first two crops in Louisiana?
Tobacco and Indigo
Why were they replaced with sugar cane and cotton?
Sugar cane and cotton were more profitable
How did World War II affect the oil industry?
The demand for oil during the war and changes in agriculture gave
Louisiana the new economic direction with oil
Mineral Resources – inorganic substances that were formed by Earth’s
geological processes Examples are oil, natural gas, salt, sulphur, and
lignite
Nonrenewable Resources – resources that are not replaced by nature
once they are extracted from the environment
Lignite – lowest quality of coal; a soft, brownish-black coal that burns poorly
because of high water content
Biological Resources – plants and animals (flora and fauna) they are
renewable,
Renewable – they replenish themselves
Pulpwood – smaller, softer trees (mostly pine) that are shredded into pulp
to be made into paper
Labor Union – an organization of workers formed to improve wages,
benefits, and working conditions for workers
List the importance of the minerals found in Louisiana:
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Oil --- Louisiana contains 10 percent of the oil reserves in the United States
Louisiana is one the top oil producing states, thousands of wells are l
Located off of Louisiana’s coast, refineries produce enough oil for 800
million automobiles, and an unlimited list of other products is created
from chemicals refined from oil
Natural Gas --- larger than oil deposits, 25 percent of United States supply
comes from Louisiana. Natural gas was converted into carbon black
used to make tires and ink. Reduces air pollution and is the source of
energy for homes and businesses.
Salt –- needed for animals and humans to survive, Avery Island deposit is
almost pure rock salt, used to make chemicals that are used in 100’s
of products like PVC pipe and plastic
Sulphur – mineral that makes matches, gunpowder, medicine, plastic, and
paper. Discovery made in 1869, “richest 50 acres in the world, cities
Sulphur, Port Sulphur and Freeport Sulphur are named for this
mineral. Low prices from other countries made it unprofitalbe to mine
in Louisiana
Lignite – low form of coal used as another form of energy, found in DeSoto
Parish, fuels an electric power station in Mansfield
List the importance of the biological resources found in Louisiana:
Forests – Louisiana’s second from of income producer, 90 percent are pine
trees. Large trees are cut for sawtimber made into furniture and
flooring. The industry includes paper mills, lumber mills, and plywood
plants. 100 million trees are replanted each year.
Wildlife: Economic resources for trappers, and hunting fur pelts used to
be and important part of the economy but the demand for fur has drastically reduced so
trapping has declined. Hunting has been source of food, it also generates millions for the
state’s economy. Black bear is endangered and can not be hunted. Migratory birds, doves
and quail can be hunted also but quail numbers have decreased. Alligators are the most
famous wildlife in Louisiana. Their hides made leather, brings in millions of dollars each
year.
Fish: recreation and commercial The demand for catfish led to catfish
farming. Crawfish also is a huge industry in Louisiana. Fishing in
Louisiana attracts tourists to the state. Seafood caught in Louisiana
supplies 25 percent of the nation’s demands. 2 billion pounds of fish
in a year. Louisiana provides more shrimp, oysters, and crabs than
any other state. Menhaden fish are used to make pet food, and
fertilizer and food for farm raised catfish.
Capital Resources – human made products used to produce goods and
services. Includes rice mills, sugar refineries, oil refineries, cotton
gins, and meat-packing plants, as well as bridges, highways, and
airports.
Human Resources – people who supply the labor to produce goods and provide services.
Private Goods and Services Meets the needs of individuals (hamburgers)
Public Goods and Services Available to everyone; meets the needs of all (detergent, soap)
Interdependent An economic system where producers and consumers rely on each
other and on other economies to succeed
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Tariff Taxes on imported goods
Economic Indicator Information used to measure the economy includes gross domestic
product, consumer price index, inflation, and unemployment
Gross Domestic Product –
Total market value of all goods and services produced in the United
States in a certain time period
Consumer Price Index A monthly price survey for a list of goods and services
Inflation Rate Reflects a steady increase in the consumer price index
Unemployment Rate –
The percentage of people who are out of work and looking for jobs
Name goods that are made in Louisiana.
Ships, trucks, electrical equipment, glass products, automobile
batteries, and mobile homes
Why is the chemical industry ranked 2nd in the United States?
The production of petrochemicals (chemicals made from petroleum (oil)
What are some shipbuilding products produced in Louisiana?
Merchant vessels, Coast Guard cutters, barges, tugboats, supply
boats, fishing and pleasure vessels
What is biotechnology?
The combining of biological research with engineering
Name two service industries.
Tourism and movie making
Name some economic institutions.
Businesses, corporations, banks, and labor unions
How much grain passes through Louisiana ports?
400 million tons of cargo which is 40% of all grains exported from the
United States
What is NAFTA?
North America Free Trade Agreement; it removed trade restrictions
between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. These trade
policies shifted from protective tariffs toward free trade economy.
Without the tariffs sugar farmers and rice farmers have competition
of lower pricing.
Government
government – an organization in a society with the authority to make,
carry out, and enforce laws
parish – geographical divisions of the Catholic Church; later formed
Louisiana’s governmental divisions. Louisiana is the only state
with parishes
.constitution - a document that explains the broad purposes of a
government, describes its organization, and states its
powers
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preamble – the introduction to the constitution where the people agree
on the power and purpose of government
federalism – a system of government where the national and state
governments share powers; power is divided between a
central government and various territorial subdivision
limited government – a government in which a constitution, statement of
rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power. The
United States have a limited government (3 branches)
unlimited government – a government in which control is held solely by
by the ruler and his or her appointees
concurrent powers – powers that may be exercised by both national
Government and state governments
Describe how Louisiana’s government was affected by France and Spain and what are Louisiana’s
civil laws based on?
French and Spanish civil codes which explain how individuals deal with each other. The
Judicial decisions are based on these written laws.
When did British law come to Louisiana?
after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Laws in the United States were based on the British
common law system.
What is the purpose for a democratic government?
It is established by the people, and the authority to govern comes from the people. It is
organized to protect the individual rights of the people and to promote the common good
What are the 3 functions of a constitution?
a. Explains the purpose of government
b. Describes its organization
c. States its powers
What powers are shared by the federal government and the state
government?
The power to collect taxes
Checks and Balances –
a system where each branch of government can use its powers to keep the other branches
from misusing their powers
Veto – to refuse to approve legislation
Attorney General – the primary legal officer for the state
Bicameral - describes a legislative body made up of two bodies or houses
reapportionment – the process of revising the boundaries of legislative districts in order to achieve
relatively equal populations
constituent – a person represented by an elected official
civil law – a law that deals with the relationship between and among individuals
criminal law – laws intended to protect society from the wrongdoing of an individual
jury – a group of citizens chosen to hear evidence on a legal case and to make a decision based
on the evidence presented
List the members of the executive branch
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, and Treasurer
List the members of the legislative branch
House of Representatives and Senate
List the members of the judiciary branch
District Courts, Courts of Appeal, Louisiana Supreme Court
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List the steps of how a bill becomes a law. You may want to use a flow map.
Bill is introduced – Bill is sent to committee for review – Committee holds hearings on the
bill – Members debate and vote on bill – If passed, the bill goes to the Senate – Bill is
introduced and is assigned a committee – Members debate and vote – If passed it goes to
governor for approval – governor signs or vetoes bill – If signed it becomes law – if vetoed,
legislature may override veto by 2/3 vote in each chamber
parish seat - the location of the parish government and courthouse,
usually in the center of the parish. Tangipahoa Parish is located in Amite.
police jury – a group of citizens who are chosen by voters to represent
them on the parish level
home rule – political subdivisions to govern themselves
home rule charter – allows a community to organize its local government in a form other than a
police jury, they include an elected parish president, and an elected parish council and an
administration.
municipality – cities and towns located within the parish
Who passes the local laws for the parish? How many members does our parish have?
The parish council or police jury. We have 10 districts in Tangipahoa Parish
What services are provided through taxes?
Roads, public buildings, (jails and courthouses)
Indentify the parish officials and tell what their duties are.
Police Jury – raise money for parish expenses
Sheriff – chief law enforcement officer, parish tax collector
Assessor – determines the value of property for tax purposes
District attorney – chief prosecutor who represents the parish’s people in criminal cases
Clerk of court – maintains the court records, and other official records such as marriage
licenses, divorce papers, passports
What is the purpose of the school board?
Receive money from the state for the education of children in the districts, collect funds
through taxes called bonds, and supervises the school systems.
LOUISIANA NATIVES:
archaeologist – a scientist who studies the items left behind by ancient
peoples to determine how they lived
midden – garbage mound left by prehistoric people
nomad – a wanderer; a person with no settled home
atlatl – a throwing stick with weights used by prehistoric people to throw
spears with more force for farther distances
mound – a raised area created by prehistoric peoples and thought to be
Used for ceremonial or burial purposes
artifact – an item left behind ancient peoples stone, bone, pottery, tools
cave paintings, weavings, skeletons, items buried with people, and
trash
agriculture – farming
temple mound – a mound built by prehistoric Indians and used for
religious purposes
Paleo Indians – oldest known Indians in Louisiana date back to 10,000
B.C. crossed beringia followed animals for food and clothing. They
ate a variety of plants and animals including mastodans. Spear points
are found throughout Louisiana
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Meso Indians – 7500 B.C. ate animals such as deer, rabbit, birds, fish,
clams, reptiles, seeds, roots, nuts, and fruits still nomadic but stayed
in a place longer. They built houses of branches and thatch. They built mounds.
What are some of the artifacts left behind by the Meso Indians?
Artifacts included bowls, jewelry, baskets, harpoons, bone needles,
fish hooks, and shell ornaments
Early Neo Indians – 1000 B.C. built villages for seasonal living,
developed the bow and arrow, diet was grapes, palmetto, pigweed,
amaranth, fish, deer, and shellfish. They had elaborate ornaments,
copper ear spools, bracelets, beads, animal tooth pendants, pottery
pipes and figurines.
Late Neo Indians – 800 A.D. to 1500’s built villages near waterways,
More permanent housing made of wattle and daub (sticks covered with mud) They lived in
one place year round, they became farmers
They ate beans, corn, squash, and pumpkins. They built temples on
top of their mounds
What places give clues about the lives of the ancient people?
Where they prepared food, made tools, built shelters, and conducted
ceremonies
Why was the development of the bow and arrow so important?
It made hunting easier
What was the purpose of the temple mounds?
It is where religious ceremonies were held
immunity natural resistance to disease
tribe a group of people who share common ancestry, language, name,
and a way of living
treaty a formal agreement between two or more nations
totem a tribal symbol; an animal, plant, or natural object serving as a
symbol of a clan or family
clan a group of people who believe themselves related by blood
What is considered the beginning of the historic period?
When the Europeans came to America and began keeping records
Who was the first European to travel through Louisiana?
Hernando deSoto
Why was the Native American population decreased by 80 % from the time of Spanish
exploration and French exploration?
Diseases such as influenza, measles, smallpox, and cholera
As students present their projects you will write down key information about their tribes. You will be
responsible for the language, traditions, location, food and shelter for each one.
Atakapa – Southwest Prairie Region, they practiced cannibalism on
defeated enemies. Atakapa language, they played chunkey and stickball, men were hunters
and warriors Storytelling and traditional medicine, houses were brush shelters (grass and
reeds around a wooden frame) Men wore breech cloths, women wore wrap around skirts of
deerskin or woven fiber, they wore moccasins. The men wore hair in mohawks and used
porcupine hair roaches. Both men and women had tribal tattoos. They used dogs as pack
animals, they built canoes, They ate fish, oysters, shrimp, crab, deer, buffalo, alligator, fruits,
nuts, and honey. They made bows and arrows and pottery from red clay.
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Natchez – northeastern Mississippi Floodplain regions ruled by a king. The
Natchez king was called the Great Sun Great Sun usually had to listen to the opinions of a
council of warriors, priests, and other important Natchez men They spoke their native
Natchez language Natchez children liked to go hunting and fishing with their fathers they
had corn husk dolls, toys and games to play. Teenage boys played a spear-throwing game
called chunkey. Natchez mothers, like many Native Americans, traditionally carried their
babies in cradleboards on their backs. Men were higher-ranking than women, held
leadership positions, were in charge of the household, and even got to eat first. However,
both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.
They had adobe houses with thatched roofs Natchez men wore breechcloths and leather
leggings. Natchez women wore wraparound skirts made of deerskin or woven fiber
The Great Sun wore a fancy feathered crown, but other Natchez men usually went bareheaded. Some Natchez warriors shaved their heads except for a scalplock (one lock of hair
on top of their heads.) Women usually wore their hair in one long braid Natchez men and
women both painted their faces for special occasions and also decorated their bodies with
complex tribal tattoos. The Natchez were farming people. They raised crops of corn, beans,
pumpkins, and squash. Natchez men also hunted deer, wild turkeys, and buffalo and went
fishing in the rivers. Natchez recipes included cornbread, hominy, and soups. Natchez
hunters used bows and arrows or spears. Fishermen used fishing harpoons and nets.
Farmers used hoes carved from hickory wood. In war, Natchez men fired their bows or
fought with tomahawks and war clubs. They were known for their pottery, baskets, and
woodcarvings.
Caddo Northwestern or Hills region of the state Caddo band was led by a
chief chosen by a council of warriors. Historically, all these chiefs were male. Today speak
their native Caddo language kids tried to throw a dart through a moving hoop Caddo men
were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Caddo women were
farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking built tall beehive-shaped grass
houses
Caddo village also included a temple and a sports field. Sometimes villages were
surrounded by log walls for protection Caddo Indian men wore breechcloths, sometimes
with leather leggings to protect their legs. Caddo women wore wraparound skirts and
poncho tops made of woven fiber and deerskin. Both genders wore earrings and
moccasins. Caddo men did not usually wear shirts, but in cold weather, both men and
women wore buffalo robes.
Caddo men usually cut their hair in the Mohawk style or shaved their heads except for a
scalplock (one long lock of hair on top of their heads.) Sometimes warriors would make this
hairstyle more impressive with a colorful porcupine roach. Caddo Indian women usually
wore their long hair in a bun. For special occasions, Caddo women fastened their buns with
beaded hair ornaments and long trailing ribbons . The Caddos also wore tribal tattoos, and
women painted their faces and bodies bright colors for special occasions. dugout canoes
from hollowed-out logs, but usually they preferred to travel by land
The Caddo Indians were farming people. Caddo women harvested crops of corn, beans,
pumpkins, and sunflowers. Caddo men hunted for deer, buffalo, and small game and went
fishing in the rivers. Traditional Caddo foods included cornbread, soups, and stews. The
Caddo Indians also mined salt from underground mines, which they boiled down to use in
their cooking. Caddo hunters primarily used bows and arrows. Caddo fishermen caught fish
and shellfish in basket traps. Caddo warriors fired their bows or fought with lances or
tomahawks. Farmers used tools such as hoes and spades, which they made from wood,
carved bone, and mussel shells. The Caddos also made axes with heavy stone heads for
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chopping wood. They made pottery, basketry, woodcarvings. They held pow-wows where
they danced and played drums. There are many legends and they enjoyed story telling.
They held elaborate religious rituals
Choctaw Located in the Southeast or in the Flatwoods or Blufflands
Regions They spokeChoctaw language They played Toli a lacrosse
stick like game Choctaw girls enjoyed guessing games and playing with beaded dolls.
Chunkey, football, swimming, and footraces were also popular pastimes among Choctaw
kids. Choctaw mothers, like many Native Americans, carried their babies in cradleboards on
their backs
Choctaw men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Chiefs were
always men. Choctaw women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking.
Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine Choctaw
homes were made of plaster and rivercane walls, with thatched roofs. These dwellings were
about as strong and warm as log cabins The villages were surrounded with palisades
Choctaw men wore breechcloths. Choctaw women wore wraparound skirts made of
deerskin or woven fiber Choctaw men and women both wore their hair long, but some men
cut their hair in the Mohawk style, decorating the fringe with feathers. Choctaws often
painted their faces and bodies bright colors during battles, lacrosse games, and festivals.
Some Choctaw men also wore tribal tattoos on their arms and legs. The Choctaw were
farming people. Choctaw women did most of the farming, harvesting crops of corn, beans,
squash, and sunflowers. Choctaw men did most of the hunting, shooting deer, wild turkeys,
and small game. Men also caught fish in the rivers, lakes, and sea coasts. Choctaw recipes
included cornbread, soups, and stews cooked on stone hearths. The Choctaws also
enjoyed sassafrass tea Choctaw hunters primarily used bows and arrows. Fishermen
generally used fishing spears and nets. In war, Choctaw men fired their bows or fought with
tomahawks and clubs. The Choctaws were famous for their rivercane baskets,
woodcarvings, and beaded artwork.
Houma lived in south central Louisiana or the Mississippi Flood fresh and
salt water marshes. Spoke Choctaw language. They lived in Palmetto houses. Palmetto
leaves were lashed onto a sapling frame. Woven in and out to create a water proof shelter.
Still used by trappers today. They were a sedentary tribe with a rich culture that included
dancing, crafts and a well-developed religion. Historically the Houma Indians were a tribe of
farmers and hunters. The women tended the tribe's communal fields and grew crops like
corn, pumpkin and beans, while the men hunted deer and small game with blow guns, bows
and arrows, and spears. The Houma Indians used dugout pirogues to traverse the many
bayous that cut through their territories. The pirogues were made from large, felled cypress
trees prevalent in the area. Town centers of the Houma Indians included large ball courts
and a temple where the bones of revered chiefs burned in a sacred fire. Houma Indians
allowed for both male and female chiefs. The crawfish is the totem and represents kinship
and protection another totem is the Istrouma a tall red stick that marked the hunting grounds
of the tribes. The French called this Baton Rouge Houma men and women both wore their
hair long. The Houmas often painted their faces and bodies bright colors during battles,
lacrosse games, and festivals.
Tunica-Biloxi located in east-central Louisiana or the Mississippi
Floodplain regions They were traders of salt, arrow points, flint, horses, shell beads, pearls,
and quartz. They were farmers and fishermen. They had war chief and a peace chief. Their
totem symbol is the rattlesnake. They lived in villages of thatched houses surrounded by
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palisades. They were farmers and gatherers. They planted corn, beans, and pumkins, they
used salt to season their foods which included cornbread, hominy, soups, and persimmon
bread Tunica men also hunted deer, wild turkey, and buffalo, and women collected fruits,
nuts, and mushrooms to use in their cooking Tunica hunters primarily used bows and
arrows. In war, Tunica men fired their bows or fought with war clubs and knives. The
Tunicas were known for their pottery, baskets, and woodcarvings. They also made textiles
from mulberry bark, which they used to weave clothing and blankets. Both men and women
usually wore their hair long. The Tunicas didn't usually paint their faces, but they did
decorate their bodies with tribal tattoos
Chitimacha South-central Louisiana Freshwater marsh regions celebrated
every aspects of life with ceremony and dance. With drum beating Chitimacha had no form
of writing, story tellers repeated the legends and history orally, thereby preserving an
integral part of Chitimacha culture. Chitimacha Indians spoke their own Chitimacha
language Most Chitimacha chiefs and religious leaders were men, but there were some
women who held those positions too. Each of the15 villages was self-governing, but there
was also a central government led by a grand chief. The communities were built in the
middle of rivers and swamps, as protection against enemies. There were as many as 500
people in each village. They lived in a variety of different styles of permanent homes,
depending on the materials close at hand, such as cane, wood and palmetto leaves.
The Chitimacha grew corn for hominy and meal. They also hunted and fished, and a large
part of their dietary needs was filled by the abundant variety of shellfish. They killed smaller
animals with blowguns and darts made from pieces of whittled cane. They also ate bear The
Chitimacha have long been known for their crafts, especially basketry. These baskets were
created out of wild cane reed colored with natural dye and then woven into geometric
designs
Coushatta piney woods of Southwest Louisiana The Coushatta were
traditionally agriculturalists, growing maize and other food crops, and supplementing their
diet by hunting game. They are known for their skill at longleaf pine needle basketry They
also made animal dolls out of pine needles and palm trees The land is used for Coushattaconstructed tribal housing, rice and crawfish farming and development of a new cattle
raising spoken language, Koasati. they lived in Indian style houses in large villages They
built huge temple mounds of dirt. These were like pyramids. On top they would place a
temple or the house of a priest or chief lived in square-shaped villages of houses and small
farm plots. The houses had plaster and rivercane walls with thatched roofs. These dwellings
were about as strong and warm as a log cabin. They also built a larger circular lodge for
town meetings, and most villages had a lacrosse field with benches for spectators.
Pirougue - a dugout made by Native Americans and the French;
cypress logs were partially burned and the burned section scraped out
Calumet – a peace pipe usually made of clay or hollow cane and
decorated with feathers and other significant items
How was membership into the class system achieved in most Native cultures?
Membership in clans were passed through the mother’s side of the family
How did child play prepare children for adult roles?
Their play imitated adult work, they learned gender roles and skills
needed as adults
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How do the games played by Native Americans compare to games today?
Chunky was like football or soccer and by using goals and it also like
baseball because one player hit the ball with a pole. They also had
archery, wrestling, and racing.
How did the clothing reflect their natural environment?
Women – wore simple skirts made of mulberry bark, buffalo wool, woven
palmetto leaves, Spanish moss, or buckskin
Men – breechcloths made of buckskin held with a belt made of fur, fiber, or
buckskin. They also wore buckskin leggings in cold weather
Children – dressed simply, summers they did not wear clothing at all
They all wore moccasins for footwear from deer, bear, or bison.
On special occasions, both men and women wore a cape made of woven net and covered
in turkey, duck, or swan feathers
What type of work did the men do together?
They cleared land, construct houses, and build boats
What were the main foods for most of Louisiana Indians?
Acorns, hickory nuts, mayhaw, blackberry, sweet potato, sunflower,
amaranth, corn, beans, squash, deer, bison, bear, fish, oysters,
shrimp,and crab
Preserving _balance ____ and ___harmony____ was the purpose of religious ceremonies.
Name the ceremonial traditions of most Native American tribes.
Honoring the Sun, dancing, music, story telling, sacrificing of children
What was the role of the war chief?
He was the military leader, decided when to go to war,
What was the role of the peace chief?
He was in charge of normal day to day activities in the tribe. He acted
as the judge in criminal cases
What were the reasons for going to war?
When they felt threatened by their neighbors or to acquire captives
How did contact with Europeans change the lives of the Indians forever?
They changed from a hunting and agriculture society to one that
depended on trade, they were expected to serve as soldiers or
slaves, the diseases that the Europeans brought destroyed many of
them.
FRENCH LOUSIIANA
What was the Northwest Passage?
A waterway the Europeans were searching for that would connect the
Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. There is no such waterway
Where did La Salle begin his voyage?
Canada
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Who accompanied La Salle on his voyage?
Henri de Tonti, soldiers, priests, and Indians along with their families
Why did a priest go along with La Salle?
To spread the official religion of France (Catholicism)
How did Louisiana get its name?
To honor the French King, King Louis XIV
What area was named Louisiana?
All lands drained by the Mississippi River, from the Appalachian
Mountains to the Rocky Mountains and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf
of Mexico
What was La Salle’s reward for claiming Louisiana?
He received a small fleet of ships and 300 colonists to establish a French colony for France
What is a colony?
A group of people who settle in a distant land but who still keep their
ties to their native land
What was the result of La Salle’s second voyage?
He missed the mouth of the Mississippi and landed in Matagorda Bay
in Texas. Many colonists died, and those who remained mutinied
against him and killed him.
How did other European countries react to the French claim to the Mississippi River?
Spain built a fort at Pensacola and English wanted to build a fort at the Mouth of the River
Who did King Louis XIV send to establish forts in Louisiana?
Piere LeMoyne, Sieur d’Iberville and his brother Jean Baptiste
Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
How did Iberville know he had found the Mississippi River?
The natives gave him a note left by Tonti in 1685 for the return of Frenchmen
What was the first French fort in Louisiana?
Fort Maurepas, in present day Ocean Springs, MS in honor of a French government official
What problems existed at Fort Maurepas?
It flooded and the sandy soil was too poor to grow crops
What challenges were presented to the French by the English and the Native Americans?
The English wanted to set up a fort at the Mouth of the River, and the
Colonists were afraid of attacks by the Native Americans The war in
France kept supplies coming to the colony
Why were the governmental problems in Louisiana?
Two leaders shared authority of the colony. The governor was in charge of the military and the
general management, the commissary commissioner, the business manager, was in control of
the budget and parts of the judicial system
Proprietorship – a system that gave an individual a charter or contract to operate a colony like a
busines
Superior Council – a group existing during the French colonial period that was in charge of judicial
matters and was presided over by the commissary commissioner
land grant – a parcel of land given to the directors of the Company of the West under the condition
that they bring settlers to the colony
Mississippi Bubble – the collapse of the French investment company; the Company of the West
slave – a person who is bound to a life of services to others and who is considered property
plantation – a large estate or farm
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Code Noir – a set of laws governing the conduct of the slaves during the French Colonial Period.
The purpose was to protect the slaves as property (food, clothing, shelter, and health care)
Slaves could not be forced to work on Sundays and were taught the Catholic religion. The
slaves could not carry a gun except when hunting and they could not gather in large crowds.
What is the difference between a proprietorship colony and a royal colony?
In a royal colony the King or Queen has complete control, in a proprietorship the King or
Queen appoints someone to have control of the colony and operate it like a business
What were the reasons Crozat wanted Louisiana?
He wanted to find silver and gold to make money
What were Cadillac’s problems?
He made mistakes as a leader, he threatened the Indians when he refused to smoke the
calumet, he was rude to the colonists, and he had conflicts with other government officials
Compare Cadillac’s good decisions and his bad decisions.
He organized the colony, set up the Superior Council, he was the first to suggest to sell
tobacco and indigo, and he understood that good colonists were needed.
Why was St. Denis a good choice to command Fort Jean Baptiste?
He knew the area, he knew the Caddo Indians and improved his knowledge of Indian
languages, he knew both cultures of Paris and Canada, and he had great frontier skills
What ways did Cadillac use the environment to support the economy of Louisiana?
He wanted to tame the buffalo in order to clip their wool, and he wanted to sell tobacco and
indigo
Describe St. Denis leadership qualities.
Since he knew about different cultures, he was able to negotiate with the Spanish in order to
trade with them..
What products did the French and Spanish trade?
They traded ammunition, powder, knives, mirrors, and brandy in order to get horses, cattle,
animal hides, and silver. The Spanish wanted medicine and the French wanted Spanish
silver
Why did the death of King Louis XIV end Cadillac’s control of Louisiana?
When Louis the XIV died, royal support for the colony ended
How were the leadership styles of Crozat and Law similar?
They both wanted to make money
Why did Law believe the Germans would come to live in Louisiana?
They were fighting for power and they were struggling to survive and
they wanted a better life.
Why did Bienville want people from other countries to settle in Louisiana?
He needed an adequate army, dependable people, and an export crop. The people France
were sending were criminals and did not want to work
What happens when stock holders sell large amounts of stock at the same time?
The stock loses its value
Why was the collapse of the Company called the Mississippi Bubble?
The Company was located near the Mississippi River. The price of the shares kept
increasing like an inflatable balloon, and the company could not pay back its investors.
What happened to John Law when the Mississippi Bubble burst?
He had to flee to Paris in disgrace because people wanted their money and he had no way
to give it to them
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What happened to the Company of the Indies?
They were given a new agreement to remain in charge of the colony
What did Louisiana need to succeed?
More colonists and an export crop
What was the effect of the French desire for more land?
Governor Perier saw the forests were full of materials needed in France such as resin, tar,
and wood. However the land was home to the Indians and they were not going to allow the
French to take their forests from them, and they attacked the French Fort Rosalie called the
Natchez uprising 250 colonists were killed
What was the result of the Natchez uprising?
Governor Perier sent soldiers to destroy the Natchez tribe, settlers did not stay in the area
and lost the tobacco farms, the colony could not make a profit, in 1731 the Company of the
Indies gave Louisiana back to the king.
What were three challenges Bienville faced when he returned to Louisiana?
1. Calm settlers and restore ties with the Inidians
2. Provide farm animals and tools
3. Develop a stable cash crop
What was the result of Louisiana not having a cash crop?
Colonists had to rely on barter and warehouse credit. There were few ships available to
transport goods and those that were charged high shipping rates
How did Governor Perier weaken the colonists’ relationship with the Choctaw Indians?
He selected the members he wanted to deal with. He gave them medals. His chiefs were
not tribal leaders and held no power within the tribe, he disrupted their tribal ways
Why didn’t the French colonists want the Chickasaw and the Choctaw tribes make peace with
each other?
They did not want the tribes to unite against the colonists
What happened when the Chickasaw refused to turn over the Natchez refugees?
A war broke out between the Colonists and the Chickasaw and the British. The French paid
the Choctaw for Chickasaw scalps
Why did Bienville retire?
He lost the war with the Indians, he lost many friends, and lost his confidence as a leader.
Who replaced Bienville?
Pierre Francois de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil
How did Vaudreuil make Louisiana more prosperous?
He calmed the internal conflicts among the colonists, and he used troops to
stop the Indian raids on the colonists
Why was Governor Vaudreuil called the Grand Marquis?
He established formal ceremonies and held parties that resembled the social life of the
French palace Versailles
Why did Governor Kerlerec need to strengthen the colony’s defenses?
Tensions were rising between the French and British in the colonies This will lead the
French and Indian War in the America in 1753-1761
The German farmers saved the colony. The labor of the African slaves led to the colony’s
economic growth.
Who were the casket girls?
They were young girls coming to the colony to marry settlers. They brought
household goods with them in a casket (barrel-like chest)
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Describe the majority of the homes in French colonial Louisiana.
They were made of logs or brick, A mixture of mud and deer hair was used to fill in the
cracks (bousillage). The windows had shutters but no glass. They had simple furniture.
Spanish Louisiana:
What was the Treaty of Fountainbleau?
In November 1762 in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, France handed over Louisiana
and the Isle of Orleans to Spain in order to "sweeten the bitter medicine of Spanish defeat
and to persuade them not to fight on" against the British.
Why did France want to keep the treaty secret?
France feared that Louisiana would become British. As a result, France sought to preempt
any actions that Britain would undertake if it became known that Louisiana no longer
enjoyed French protection before the Spanish were able to occupy and defend it. If Britain
had known Louisiana had belonged to Spain, they may have demanded the colony in the
war settlement
Why did Spain want Louisiana?
Louisiana would serve as a buffer to keep the British away from Spanish
Silver mines in northern Mexico, and control of the Mississippi River offered protection.
Why were the Acadians exiled from France?
During the French and Indian War, Britain took over Nova Scotia, they were told to become
loyal British subjects, and they refused.
When did the Acadians arrive in Louisiana?
1764
Where did the first group of Acadian settlers live?
They settled in the Prairie region of the Attakapa region where they were able to raise their
livestock. Page 155
Why were the colonists growing restless in Louisiana?
They did not have adequate supplies to operate the colony, there were not enough troops to
keep order, and they felt betrayed by King Louis XV when they found out about the transfer
of the colony to Spain
How long did the transfer between France and Spain control of Louisiana take?
2 years
Who was the governor of Louisiana during the transfer?
Jean-Jacques-Blaise d’Abbadie
Who tried to reason with the King to keep Louisiana, and who helped him?
Jean Milhet (wealthy merchant) and Bienville (86)
Who was the first Spanish governor of Louisiana?
Antonio de Ulloa
What happened when the Spanish finally took control of Louisiana?
The colonists were worried they would be forced to follow Spanish culture, trade laws were
changed, and formal parties stopped
Why didn’t Ulloa take immediate control of Louisiana?
He didn’t have an adequate number of troops, he worked with the French officials to
conduct the business of the colony
What were the trade Spanish trade laws and how did this affect Louisiana?
The colony could only trade with Spanish ports, they were used to trading
with the French ports in the Caribbean, and illegal trade with the British
colonies
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Why did the colonists believe Louisiana was still under French control?
Because Ulloa did not officially take control of the colony when he arrived
What did Ulloa do to help relieve the tensions of the colonists?
He inspected the forts, communicated with the British commander in West Florida, and he
gave gifts to the Indians to maintain good relations
Why didn’t the French want to take Louisiana back?
King Louis XV did not want to offend the King of Spain and Louisiana had
had been an expensive burden to France
Explain the rebellion of the Louisiana colonists against Ulloa?
Merchants and members of the Superior Council gathered in New Orleans to convince Ulloa
to give up in Louisiana. Ulloa and his wife left Louisiana in fear of their lives.
Who replaced Ulloa and how was he different?
Alejandro O’Reilly He was forceful and he came with 3,000 soldiers and 24 ships
Why did the colonists have misconceptions about O’Reilly’s intentions?
He listened to their complaints without reprimanded them
How did O’Reilly show the colony was under Spain’s control and how did he try to unite French
and Spanish traditions?
He fired cannons and raised the Spanish flag, he held a Catholic mass to remind them of
their religious connections and the Spanish culture.
Why was O’Reilly called “Bloody O’Reilly”?
He sentenced the rebels to death or to prison for treason against Spanish authority
What was the name of the organization that replaced the French Superior Council?
The Spanish Cabildo
Explain how people became members of the Spanish Cabildo.
First O’Reilly appointed the members, then the positions were bought
What were some positive accomplishments O’Reilly had on Louisiana?
He set up trade ports with Cuba, examined the forts, set prices on goods and foods that the
merchants could charge, abolished Indian slavery, set up census, and surveyed land
for boundaries of ownership
Who replaced O’Reilly?
Luis de Unzaga
How was Unzaga able to win over the French colonists?
He allowed British merchants to set up trading spots in New Orleans, he appointed French
colonists to government positions, he married a French girl, (the first marriage between
Spanish officials and French colonists)
How did Unzaga strengthen his position with the French and with the Indians?
he repaired the forts, brought in more soldiers, and gave the Indians firearms in case they
were needed against the British
Why did the Islenos come to Louisiana?
Louisiana needed loyal Spanish colonists and the more soldiers. They were given land,
houses, cattle, poultry, farm tools and food
How did Spain support the American colonies in the American Revolution?
They sent ammunition, weapons, and other supplies from New Orleans
Who was governor of Louisiana during the American Revolution?
Bernardo de Galvez
Who directed the aid from Louisiana to the American colonies?
Oliver Pollock and George Rogers Clark (leader on the frontier for the colonists)
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Why was taking New Orleans important to the British?
If they took control of New Orleans, then they could control the Mississippi River and the
forts along the upper river
Who were members of the state militia?
Boys 16 – 65 wealthy planters and merchants, Islenos, Acadians, Germans, rural farmers,
free people of color; slaves and Choctaw served as scouts
Name in order with dates the British forts captured by Galvez?
Fort Bute – Manchac – September 7, 1779
Fort New Richmond – Baton Rouge – September 21, 1779
Fort Panmure – Natchez surrendered – September 21, 1779
Fort Mobile – Mobile – October, 1780
Fort George – Pensacola – May 8 -10, 1781
How did the Treaty of Paris 1783 affect Spain?
They received all of Florida
What cities were connected by the Camino Real (Road of the King) and what was its purpose?
Natchitoches, New Orleans, St. Louis, and San Antonio (Hwy 90 today)
To bring longhorns to New Orleans
Who is the governor of Louisiana after the American Revolution?
Esteban Rodriguez Miro
Why did the American settlers pose a threat to Spain?
America would grow stronger if the colonists began settling west of the Appalachian
Mountains
Explain Miro’s relationship with the Native Americans?
He kept trade with them, and he tried to encourage them to stop the Americans from taking
their lands
What methods did Miro use to make the American colonists loyal Spanish colonists?
If they took an allegiance to Spain, they were given land grants, they were expected to
become Catholic, but not required to, they could not worship in public, and they were placed
in organized communities with other Spanish subjects
Why was the fire of 1788 devastating to New Orleans?
856 of 1100 buildings were burned. The fire happened on Good Friday and the priest
refused to ring the bell to alert the public
Who was Louisiana’s next Spanish governor?
Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet
How did Carondelet improve Louisiana’s economy?
Free trade with the United States, ships could enter the port of New Orleans
Why was the French Revolution in France a concern for Carondelet?
Many colonists were French and they were attracted to the idea of freedom
What did Carondelet do to stop a French revolt in Louisiana?
He sought support from the Indian tribes, established a police force, and added street lights
Why did some French noblemen come to Louisiana?
People who remained loyal to King Louis XV were being sought and beheaded or
imprisoned, they came to Louisiana to escape
How did the French Revolution inspire the slaves?
They planned an uprising hoping for sympathy from supporters for freedom
Why did the American colonists need to have freedom on the Mississippi River?
They could not get their crops to a port
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What were the results of Pinckney’s Treaty in 1795?
The American farmers could deposit or store their goods in warehouses before loading them
onto ships. It also set the boundary of Louisiana and the United States at the 31st parallel
How did French culture remain dominant in Louisiana?
They continued formal parties with French wine and French dancing. Men gathered in
coffee houses playing cards after mass on Sundays. The priests and nuns were allowed to
stay in the colony to continue their work
Who improved the production of sugar cane?
Etienne de Bore’
Why did Carondelet stop importing slaves form the Caribbean?
The planters in Louisiana were afraid of another revolt like the one in Haiti
What was the Treaty of Indefonso 1800?
A secret treaty giving Louisiana back to France