* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Unit 2 Chapters 6-8 Experiments in Republicanism Chapter 6 Republican principles 1780s-many Americans feared their Revolution could still fail if not grounded in a virtuous government steeped in republicanism Revolution caused Americans to consider the role of equality Republican insisted on the appearance of equality Contradictions were noted by some republicans on the evil of slavery Women began to demand more of their husbands Republicans made few concrete achievements of equality but established ideals and assumptions that would later influence Lowered property requirements and moved towards sep of church and state Northerners abolished the institution but didn’t treat AA as equals The States: Experiments in Republicanism • New State Constitutions resulted from political change that reflected the American distrust of power that followed the revolution against the British • Natural Rights emphasized fundamental freedoms, especially those of religion, speech, and press, and to grant great political power to legislatures...little to governors • Massachusetts set a precedent by drafting a Constitution in a special convention called for that purpose. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (1781) • • • • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Positives of the government under the Articles of Confederation Northwest Ordinance (1787) Provided for the orderly survey, sale, and governance of lands acquired in the west. This prevented the chaotic conditions of earlier settlement. Shay’s Rebellion Multiple Choice #1 • 1. The ________ proposed a new form for government that was acceptable to the smaller states – – – – – A. B. C. D. E. Virginia Plan “three-fifths rule” Connecticut Plan Franklin Compromise New Jersey Plan – Answer: E Multiple Choice #2 • 2. Most new state constitutions after the American Revolution – – – – – A. strengthened the power of the governors B. weakened the power of the legislature C. avoided the creation of a written constitution D. included Declarations of Rights E. affirmed the freedom of speech and press but not of religion – Answer: D Multiple Choice #3 • 3. The most obvious contradiction to the principles expressed in the founding of the American republic was – A. the way women were treated – B. the failure to allow businessmen a say in the planning of the nation’s future – C. the continued existence of slavery in much of the nation – D. the fact that some states continued to require property as a prerequisite for voting – E. the failure to address matters of religion – Answer: C Multiple Choice #4 • 4. A major fear of the Anti federalists was that – A. voters would be too distanced form their representatives – B. voters would have too much direct contact and thus influence on their representatives – C. voters would corrupt their national representatives – D. national representatives would rely too consistently on local voters for their ideas and decisions – E. the average voter was not educated enough to make good decisions – Answer: E Multiple Choice #5 FRQ • Compare the strengths and weaknesses of the Confederation and Constitutional Governments Democracy in Distress The Violence of Party Politics 1788-1800 Chapter 7 Washington as President George Washington-1789 Executive departments Federal Court System Provided revenue with the tariff act Jefferson v. Hamilton Jefferson • Republicans • Feared a large government • Hoped the nation would remain one of small, independent farmers • Jefferson admired the French • **Called Jay’s Treaty a sellout Hamilton • Federalists • Strong national government • Urged the creation of the Bank of the United States, owned by private stockholders • Constitution should be loosely interpreted • Favored tied to Britain • *Proclamation of Neutrality Popular Political culture FACTIONS Newspapers and political clubs Whiskey Rebellion Washington’s Farewell Address (1796) Played both sides of the fence Branded as civil unrest Warned Americans of political factions Republicans said it was caused by Federalist agitation Warned Americans of entangling foreign alliances Federalists claimed Republicans used the episode to create an army Written largely by Hamilton The Adams Presidency Relationship between the US and France-slowly deteriorated Known as the Quasi-War Federalists-increased the military defenses to thwart French aggression An American commission was sent to France to pursue a settlement The Alien and Sedition Acts disallowed criticism of the government Adams pursued peaceful negotiations with France. The Treaty of Mortefontaine ended the Quasi-War and restored good relations between US and France French officials demanded a bribe (XYZ Affair) (1798) humiliated and infuriated Americans Response: RepublicansVirginia and Kentucky Resolutions saying the A & S Acts were unconstitutional Multiple Choice #1 • 1. Which of the following did Hamilton and Jefferson have in common? – A. faith in a republican society – B. belief that the national government should be strong – C. faith in the common man – D. fears of the effect of the French Revolution on American society – E. great respect for the purity of the British Constitution – Answer: A Multiple Choice #2 • 2. Which of the following would James Madison have proposed? – – – – A. strong diplomatic ties with France B. the purchase of western lands C. giving the common man the right to vote D. providing government subsidies to manufacturers – E. establish the banking system on the German model – Answer: D Multiple Choice #3 • 3. During Washington’s second term in office, – A. the European war unified American officials in support of France – B. relations with Great Britain and France improved dramatically – C. Hamilton and Jefferson resolved their differences over domestic policy – D. Hamilton ceased to be a force in American politics – E. foreign affairs became a much more important focus – Answer: E Multiple Choice #4 • 4. Washington’s Farewell Address – A. warned against creating a strong military – B. attempted to bring harmony to the political system – C. supported the political ideology of Jefferson and Madison – D. wholeheartedly endorsed the two-party system – E. advised against permanent alliances with nations that were not interested in promoting American security – Answer: E Multiple Choice #5 • 5. As a result of the actions taken by John Adams while president – – – – A. he was overwhelmingly reelected in 1800 B. the United States had harmony with France C. the Federalist Party remained the major party D. France compensated the United States for ships taken – E. the French added even more restrictions on US commerce – Answer: B FRQ • Compare the foreign policies of Washington and Adams • Washington had to deal with Great Britain and the fact that Britain treated the United States with arrogance. Washington also had to blaze the trail by establishing the first US foreign policy. During Washington’s administration, there were threats from Britain, Spain and France. • Adams had to deal with France as its threat. Additionally, Adams had to deal with warring factions within his own party that wanted war. Adams had the XYZ Affair that almost railroaded US foreign policy. Republican Ascendancy: The Jeffersonian Vision Chapter 8 Jeffersonianism In theory • Passion for liberty and equality • Strict interpretation of the Constitution • Peaceful foreign relations • Reduction in the size and power of the federal government In practice • Lived in society whose members accepted slavery • Sought to remove Native Americans from the path of white mans progress • Interpreted the Constitution broadly • Accommodated the Louisiana Purchase • Enforced the Embargo of 1807 • Led the country to the brink of war Regional Identities in a New Republic Contributions to Regionalism Substantial population growth The Trans-Appalachian West experienced growth after 1790. New settlers often traveled in family units. Regardless to resistance of Native Americans. Improved transportation & technology American cities were still small, encompassing approx 7% of the population Attacks on the institution of slavery Before 1820, economy mainly agricultural. Post 1820 risky manufacturing ventures began to appear; most notably the textile industry. Jefferson as President Louisiana Purchase Lewis & Clark Barbary Pirates Jefferson’s Critics • Angered by the Judiciary Act of 1801, the Republicans repealed the law and began using their own attempts to remove unwanted jurists and judges – While proclaiming victory in Marbury v. Madison (1803) they neglected to realize that this also established judicial review • VP Aaron Burr-what a disappointment – Quarreled with and shot Alexander Hamilton in a duel – Then tried to raise a militia to overthrow Jefferson and start his own government in the new western territories – Justice John Marshall saved Burr’s hide and wouldn’t convict him on circumstantial evidence • Prohibition of imported slaves beginning in 1808 – Pretty lax in the enforcement so this continued to be a problem Embarrassment overseas Chesapeake Affair Embargo Act 1807-only made it worse for American manufacturers Act was repealed in 1809 Madison-newly elected president-1808-totally ineffective-poorly designed republican policies failed to keep US out of war Aggressive War Hawks in the US were convinced that war would restore US honor, remove the Brits for good, and open Canada to American expansion The Strange War of 1812 War Hawks urge Madison to declare war 1812 Early optimism soon faded by poor preparation The sacking and burning of the white house-1814 Sept 1814-decisive Ft. McHenry battle-Brits lose Treaty of Ghent-1814-ended the deadlock with no major concessions granted to either side Battle of New Orleans-1814final battle of the war Multiple Choice #1 • 1. Jefferson’s foreign policy – A. allowed Madison to return to domestic concerns – B. had seriously damaged the British economy – C. brought an alliance with France – D. created more harm than good for the United States – E. strengthened relations with Europe, despite the war – Answer: D Multiple Choice #2 • 2. Under Jeffersonian Republicanism – A. Americans believed opportunities were available to them – B. few Americans were able to advance in society – C. the social structure of society was well defined – D. blacks were provided opportunities in society – E. servants “knew their place” – Answer: A Multiple choice #3 • 3. What difficulty did Jefferson face in purchasing the Louisiana Territory? – – – – – A. B. C. D. E. possible confrontation with Britain lack of support from the American people the constitutionality of his actions whether to accept foreign citizens on the land finding $15 million in the federal budget – Answer: C Multiple Choice #4 • 4. After 1800, Federalists retained control of – A. – B. – C. – D. – E. the presidency the judiciary Congress the military the Supreme Court – Answer: B Multiple Choice #5 • 5. The decision in Marbury v. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court – – – – – A. ruled on the constitutionality of federal laws B. compelled federal officials C. discussed the powers of the judiciary D. had a unanimous ruling E. asserted its right to judge the constitutionality of congressional acts – Answer: E FRQ • Compare and contrast the differences in American society of 1776 and 1812.