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Transcript
Unit 4 Overview
Washington to Madison
Constitution
• George Mason wrote the Virginia Declaration
of Rights
• Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute
for Religious Freedom
• Both of these were used in the Bill of Rights
which was one of the most important acts of
Congress during its first session in 1789.
George Washington
• First President of United States
• His Cabinet was made up of Secretary of State
Thomas Jefferson, Treasury Secretary Alexander
Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and
Attorney General Edmund Randolph
• Although Washington agreed with a lot of
Federalist positions, he did not like parties. He
felt they were divisive and when he left office he
said so in his farewell speech.
George Washington
• Alexander Hamilton wanted to build up the
U.S. by taking on debt to prove they could pay
it off. He was the leader of the Federalist Party
• The Tariff of 1789 was passed to raise money
to help the new federal government operate
• Government bonds were paper notes
promising to repay money after a certain
amount of time with interest. Hamilton
wanted to repay these in full.
George Washington
• Washington’s farewell address – he warned
against foreign entanglements (getting
involved in affairs of foreign countries) and
sectionalism .
• Sectionalism– loyalty to one’s own region,
state, or party over your country.
• Washington felt that political parties would
lead to loyalty to the party over the country.
George Washington
• Wanted to keep us out of war so we stayed
Neutral
• He sent John Jay to sign a treaty with Great
Britain and the most important part of this treaty
is that it prevented war with Great Britain
• Jay’s Treaty stated that American merchants
would not be discriminated against when they
traded with Britain, a status called Most-Favored
Nation.
George Washington
• Pinckney’s Treaty granted the US the right to
navigate the Mississippi and to deposit goods
at the port of New Orleans.
• The area between the Appalachian Mountains
and the Mississippi River became the fastest
growing region in the United States.
John Adams
• Second President of the United States
• He was a Federalist, the first political party.
• Wanted the National government to be
supreme, ruling power to wealthy/educated,
government promotes manufacturing, loose
interpretation of the Constitution and
protective tariffs to protect domestic
industries.
John Adams
• Aliens – people living in the country who are
not citizens. Sedition – incitement to rebellion
• Adams passed the Alien Act because most of
the new immigrants preferred the
Democratic-Republicans. (the 2nd political
party)
• He passed the Sedition Act to keep people
from speaking out against his government.
• These laws violated the Bill of Rights
John Adams
• Jefferson and Madison wrote the Kentucky
and Virginia Resolutions which said that if the
government passed a law which was
unconstitutional, the states had the right to
nullify it.
• Nullification – declare it invalid
John Adams
• France became America’s biggest enemy
during Adams’ administration
• When the French started to stop our ships and
take our goods Adams sent some envoys to
speak with the French, but they would not talk
to our envoys unless we paid them a
$250,000 bribe.
• Adams placed this into the American papers
without using their names and called them,
XYZ. This XYZ Affair angered Americans and
the French then decided to negotiate.
John Adams
• John Marshall was the longest serving and
most powerful chief justice of the Supreme
Court.
• When Adams was leaving office, he appointed
many Federalists to federal judgeships. These
Midnight judges would lead to the policy of
Judicial Review. (Supreme Court can declare
laws unconstitutional)
• Marbury v. Madison – Marbury sued Madison
in the Supreme Court which led to the
Supreme Court ‘s power of Judicial Review.
Thomas Jefferson
• The Third President of the United States
• The leader of the Democratic-Republicans
• His victory in 1800 was important because it
was the first peaceful transfer of power
between political parties.
• It also changed how people voted for vicepresident. The people would now vote for
president and vice-president separately.
Thomas Jefferson
• Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase in
1803 and it doubled the size of the U.S.
• Jefferson had a conflict about this purchase,
because he wanted the land for the growth of
the country so the people would have land,
but the Constitution did not give him the right
to make this purchase. (strict interpretation)
• He chose the “necessary and proper” clause, a
loose interpretation, just as Hamilton had in
order to start the Bank of the US. This was an
Implied power.
Thomas Jefferson
• He chose Lewis and Clark to explore this new
land and they had a Shoshone named
Sacagawea join them and become their guide
and interpreter
• France sold this land for $15 million because
they were at war with Britain and needed the
money.
• The British were in need of sailors so they
attacked American ships and kidnapped our
sailors to become British sailors. This was
known as Impressments.
Thomas Jefferson
• In order stop this without going to war,
Jefferson passed an Embargo Act, which
stopped trade between our two countries.
• The Embargo Act hurt the U.S. more than it
did the British. This Act was passed in 1807
after a British ship fired on an American ship.
• The British would eventually stop
Impressments after the war was over since
they would no longer need the extra sailors.
James Madison
• The fourth President of the United States.
• The War of 1812 was fought during his
administration.
• The causes of the war were – Britain
interferes with American shipping, Britain
provides arms (weapons) to American Indians,
and the British force American sailors to serve
in their navy.
James Madison
• During the War of 1812, Frances Scott Key
wrote “The Star Spangled Banner”
• The war ended with the signing of the Treaty
of Ghent.
• After the treaty was signed, the Battle of New
Orleans was fought and this battle helped to
destroy the Federalist party as well as make a
hero out of Andrew Jackson and led to
Nationalism – Feelings of strong patriotism