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Emotion An introduction and approaches to understanding T. Curwen Write down 5 emotions Are you 100% sure they are emotions? What is an emotion? Is an emotion different from: moods, sensations, traits, sentiments? Are emotions: Dangerous? Harmful? Beneficial? Necessary? Overview Evolution of emotion: knowledge research approaches Brain science, physiology, sociology Emotion - defined Early work Emotions and passions are dangerous Should rid ourselves of emotion Moderation to unify mind and morals Emotion inhibited superiority Early Behavioural/Cognitive approaches Core of emotion is behaviour Facial behaviour Body movements Evaluation of something in internal/ext. environ Nature/inclinations to act Complex reasoning processes that lead to emotions Why little interest in emotions? Behaviourism was popular during the 30’s Focus on observable behaviours ~60’s - 70’s great interest in the mind developed Influences on emotion work since 60’s Infancy and emotion Attachment Neuroscience Cognitive psychology Stress Ethology Facial Expression Does LOVE have a facial expression? Ekman Emotion families Feelings in emotion families Basic vs. complex emotions Ekman’s Nine Attributes of Emotion 1. Brief 2. Unbidden/Involuntary 3. Unlike a lot of processes 4. Automatic unconscious appraisal component 5. Quick onset 6. Coherent Ekman’s Nine Attributes of Emotion 3 Criteria to help distinguish the emotion 7) Signal in the face and body 8) Universal antecedents 9) Physiology The Physiological Component A Historical Perspective James-Lange Theory of Emotion The Physiological Component A Historical Perspective Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Two-factor Theory Physiological Arousal + Appraisal = Emotion What emotion is she demonstrating? Is it an emotion? Is the context important to interpreting this picture? What is emotion? Comparing emotion Emotion vs. Moods Emotion vs. Sensations Emotion vs. Trait Emotion vs. Sentiment Emotion components The Physiological Component The Expressive Component The Cognitive Component Emotion Definitions James, 1884 – “bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact, and that our feelings of the same changes as they occur is the emotion” Barrett & Compos, 1987 – “emotions as bidirectional processes of establishing, maintaining, and/or disrupting significant relationships between an organism and the (internal/external) environment” Lazarus, 1991 – “emotions are organized psycho-physiological reactions to news about ongoing relationships with the environment” Frijda & Mesquita, 1994 – “emotions are first and foremost, modes of relating to the environment states of readiness for engaging, or not engaging, in interaction with the environment” Emotion Three Components of Emotion Evolution and Emotion Outline Elements of an evolutionary approach Emotions serve functions Origins of emotions Basis of social relationships Evolution of language Assumptions of Evolutionary Theory 1) Designed for gene replication 2) Selection pressures 1) 2) Natural selection Sexual Selection 3) Adaptations 1) 2) 3) 4) Reproduce our genes Mating is costly Fertility Giving birth is costly Evolutionary Theory & Emotion Evolutionary theory How do these evolutionary theories/approaches apply to emotion? Evolutionary Theory & Emotion Emotions as adaptations Solve problems • Emotion functions to solve a problem • Emotions affect our cognitions • Face presents information to others Face presents information to others!