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Transcript
Evolution: Isn't Evolution Just a Theory?
Carolus
Linnaeus, 1735
_______________
2nd to classify
organisms based on
traits
their _________
Georges Buffon, 1749
_______________
Erasmus
Darwin, 1749 Jean-Baptiste
Lamarck, 1809
_______________
_______________
Proposed that
species shared
ancestors
________________
Proposed that more
complex life forms
less
arose from _______
complex life forms
Proposed that
changes in an
environment caused
changes in
organisms
________________
CATASTROPHISM
GRADUALISM
UNIFORMITARIANISM
CATASTROPHISM
Georges Cuvier
Theory proposed by _______________________.
Natural disasters
States that ______________________________
such as ___________
and
floods
volcanic eruptions
_______________________________
have
landforms
shaped ________________
and caused species to
become ___________________
in the process.
extinct
GRADUALISM
James Hutton
Theory proposed by ______________________.
States that the changes in landfoms resulted from
slow changes
___________________
that had occurred over a
long period of time.
UNIFORMITARIANISM
Theory proposed by ______________________.
Charles Lyell
States that the changes in geologic processes that
shape the Earth are uniform through time.
The changes have happened in the past and
_________________________________________
are ONGOING!
_________________________________________
TYPES OF FEET
TYPES OF BEAKS
WEBBED
FISH
CLAWED
PADDED
HOOVED
NUTS
INSECTS
FISH
COLORATION
BODY FAT AND THICK FUR
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
ADAPTATION ACTIVITY
_______________________
_______________________
1. It survives
_______________
2.
It passes on his traits
_______________________
1. It survives
_______________
2. It passes on its traits
_______________________
_____________________________
Principles of NS
____________________
Natural Selection-- ______________________________________
process in which something in
nature does the selecting of what will survive and
___________________________________________________________
what will not survive.
___________________________________________________________
PREDATORS
____________________________
WEATHER CONDITIONS
_________________________________________
RESOURCE SHORTAGES
_______________________________________________
DISEASE
____________________________
Adaptations = traits
______________________________
Traits = genes
______________________________
Adaptations
=
genes
______________________________
1.
A CHANGE IN THE DNA CODE
__________________________________
_______________________________________
2.
ARE NATURAL EVENTS
______________________________________________________
3.
CAN BE A SOURCE FOR NEW TRAITS
______________________________________________________
4.
THESE NEW TRAITS CAN BE ADAPTATIONS
BECAUSE THEY MIGHT HELP THE
______________________________________________________
ORGANISM SURVIVE IN ITS ENVIRONMENT
______________________________________________________
BROWN COAT TO
WHITE COAT
BROWN COAT
TO WHITE COAT
__________________
__________________
The white deer is more easily seen by
predators. It will most likely not survive and
reproduce.
The brown rabbit is more
easily seen by
predators. It will most
likely not survive and
reproduce.
Species – A group of living things that can breed
_______________________________________________________
with others of the same species and
_______________________________________________________
form ‘FERTILE’ offspring.
_______________________________________________________
Fertile – being able to reproduce by
________________________________________
forming egg or sperm cells
________________________________________
New species are formed by:
1. Animals within the same species are_________
separated by
a__________________________
barrier, (water, mountains, etc).
a. They_________
live apart for thousands of years with
different living conditions.
_____________________
2. _______________
Natural selection takes place within the two
separate regions.
3. Individuals with the desirable traits for their
specific environment _____________________
survive and reproduce.
4. Over time the two groups can become different
species as they develop different adaptations.
_________
1. Seed Eaters
2. Plant Eaters
3. Insect Eaters
4. Cactus Eaters
_______________________________________________________
HUMANS
COME
FROM
MONKEYS
NEW WORLD MONKEYS
OLD WORLD MONKEYS
•Have tails
•Some have tails
•Nostrils Point Upwards
•Nostrils Point Downwards
Hamadryas baboon
(Africa)
Prehensile tails
(spider monkeys)
Howler Monkey
Patas monkey
(Africa)
APES
•No tails
Congo Gorilla
PRIMATE
EVOLUTION
“Before Monkey”
PROSIMIANS
NEW WORLD MONKEYS
OLD WORLD MONKEYS
APES
HUMANS
40 MILLION
30 MILLION
10 MILLION
APES
AUSTRALOPITHECUS
HOMO HABILIS
Walked upright, very short. “Lucy”
_____________________________________
Used tools, somewhat taller. Lived in Africa
_____________________________________
HOMO ERECTUS _____________________________________
Lived in Europe. Continental drift?
HOMO SAPIEN
10 MILLION
YEARS AGO
Neanderthal
__________________________________
HOMO SAPIEN SAPIEN__________________________
Cave Drawings, This is us!
Ardi
Did humans evolve?
What do the differences in
the skull suggest?
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
____________________________
Virtual lab – Hominoid skulls
Hominid Skulls
C
Acurate measurements are taken to compare fossils.
•A line is drawn over the eye socket from front to back of
skull
•A line is drawn under the eye socket from front to back
of skull
•A line is drawn from the highest point on the top of skull
to lower line.
B
A
Supraorbital index : Using a metric ruler,
1. Multiply the value of BC by 100 ____
2. Divide the result by AC ____
Size of Brain / Intelligence
What is the supraorbital index measuring? _____________________________
PRIMATE
EVOLUTION
“Before Monkey”
PROSIMIANS
NEW WORLD MONKEYS
OLD WORLD MONKEYS
APES
HUMANS
40 MILLION
30 MILLION
10 MILLION
Complex
Organisms
1.
Remains of
____________________
once-living
____________________
things
____________________
Newest Layer of Rock
2.
Found in earth’s
____________________
crust within
____________________
sedimentary
____________________
rock
____________________
Oldest Layer of Rock
Simple
Organisms
__Body
Comparisons__
___Fossils______________________________________________________
__Embryos_____________________
Shows common traits in organisms which determine
relationships/evolution
1. Body Structure
______________________________
a. Bones: (Number of bones, Length of bones, etc)
_________________________________________
b. Skulls: (Size of, Position of, Similarities of, etc)
_________________________________________
2. Body Chemistry
_______________________________
______________
a. DNA
__________
b. Blood
Structure of organisms
Skulls of fossil Hominidae
Australopithecus
robustus
Evolution from
different
CLASSES
______________
of animals
Homo habilis & H. sapiens
Homo erectus
Homo sapiens neanderthalis
Evolution within same
ORDER
_______________
of animals
1.
The study of
____________________
embryos
____________________
____________________
2. Show common
ancestry
____________________
3.
Show common
____________________
traits
____________________
Which one is human?
How does evolution work
VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE - body part that no longer has a function appendix
and pink lump in eye of humans
Naturalist
1. English __________________
who
wrote the
Origin of the Species
__________________________
2. Developed the
Theory of Evolution
___________________________
3. Stated that evolution is a
change
_______________
in the
hereditary
features
______________
______________
of a group of organisms over
time.
Controversy
Charles Darwin
traveled on the
HMS Beagle from
England to the
______________
Galapagos
______________
Islands
It is on these
islands that
Darwin made his
observations and
compiled
evidence of the
______________
evolutionary
______________
process.
______________
Variation
1. _______________________:
the difference in the physical traits
of an individual from those of other individuals in the group to
which it belongs.
Interspecific Variation
________________________:
Variation that occurs among
members of different species
Intraspecific Variation Variation that occurs among
________________________:
individuals of the same species.
Adaptation
2. _______________________:
The feature(s) that allow an
organism to better survive in its environment.
Adaptations can lead to genetic change in a
Population over time
_______________________________________.
1.
LIVING THINGS OVERPRODUCE
____________________________________________
2.
THERE IS VARIATION AMONG OFFSPRING
____________________________________________
3. THERE IS A STRUGGLE TO SURVIVE
4.
NATURAL SELECTION IS ALWAYS TAKING
___________________________________________
____________________________________________
PLACE
__________________
Evolution: Why Does
Evolution Matter Now?
1.
COMPETITION: __struggle among living things to get their needs______________________________
2.
EVOLUTION : _change in hereditary features in a group of organisms over time_________________
3.
EXTINCT : _life-form that no longer exists_____________________________________________
4.
FERTILE : ___can produce viable egg and sperm___________________________________
5.
FOSSIL : __remains of once living things from the past_____________________________________
6.
NATURAL SELECTION _something in a living thing’s surroundings will determine if it will survive__
7.
NEW-WORLD MONKEY _tails that can grasp and nostrils that open upward__________________
8.
OLD-WORLD MONKEY __cannot grasp with tails and have downward nostrils_________________
9.
OPPOSABLE THUMB: _thumb that is positioned opposite of other fingers_________________
10. PRIMATE: _have eyes that face forward and thumbs that grasp_____________________________
11. SEDIMENTARY ROCK: _form from mud, sand and other fine particles___________________________
12. SPECIES: __group of living things that can produce fertile offspring__________________________
13. VARIATION: _a trait that makes an individual different from others of its species________________
14. VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE: _body part that no longer has a function appendix and pink lump in eye of
humans