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Quantum Plasmonics
马润泽 边珂 李亚楠 王硕 闪普甲 张玺
Quantum plasmonics
M. S. Tame1*, K. R. McEnery1,2, ¸S. K. Özdemir3, J. Lee4, S. A. Maier1*
and M. S. Kim2, 2013, Nature physics
surface plasmons:
electromagnetic excitations coupled to electron charge density waves on metal–
dielectric interfaces or localized on metallic nanostructures
enable the confinement of light to scales far below that of conventional optics;
suffer from large losses
Quantum plasmonics
build devices that can exploit lossy nature for controlling dissipative quantum
combine modern plasmonics with quantum optics, study the fundamental physics
of surface plasmons and the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including
single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale.
quantum plasmonics:
descripe surface plasmons using quantum mechanics
1950s, Bohm and Pines, with work by Pines providing the very first model for
quantizing plasma waves in metals;
Hopfield, provided a quantum model for the polarization field describing the
response of matter to light(did not consider loss);
Ritchie,a surface plasma wave (SPW);
Elson and Ritchie, used Hopfield's approach to provide the first quantized
description of SPWs as `SPPs‘;
Huttner and Barnett, `microscopic' quantization method, extending Hopfield's
approach to polaritons in dispersive and lossy media(consider loss);
A `macroscopic' approach has been developed using Green's functions
Quantization of SPWs
Quantize the electromagnetic field by accounting for the dispersive properties of the
metal via the collective response of the electrons
(1)classical mode description
(2) discretization of classical modes
(3) quantization via the correspondence principle
solve Maxwell‘s equations, a general form of the vector potential A(r;t )→
a virtual square of area S = Lx *Ly is introduced on the surface.,a discretized form
for A(r;t ) → Use the quantized Hamiltonian of a harmonic oscillator,including
annihilation and creation operators
only change :the mode function uK(r) which represents the classical wavelike
properties of the excitation
u(r) differ from r
Optical confinement: traditional
Optical confinement: plasmon
Optical fiber or
cavity wall.
Surface plasmon
Survival of entanglement
As shown in Figs,
photon converted into
and back to from SPP
remain polarizationentangled.
1. Paul G. Kwiat, etc, New High-Intensity
Source of Polarization-Entangled
Photon pairs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75,
2. E. Altewisher, etc, Plasmon-assisted
transmission of entangled photons,
Nature 418, 304(2002)
Decoherence and loss
1. Giuliana Di Martino etc, Quantum Statistics of Surface Plasmon Plaritons in Metallic Stripe
Wave guides, Nano Lett. 12, 2504(2012)
Decoherence and loss
Wave-particle duality
Quantum size effect
the continuous electronic conductional band,
valid at macroscopic scales, break up into
discrete states when dimensions are small
enough, making the Drude model no longer
quantum tunnelling
QR:quantum regime
Part III:Single emitters coupled to SPPs
1.Weak coupling regime:
2.Strong coupling regime:
Coherent energy transfer between
emitter and Spp field
3. Some applications:Spp-induced
Pucell effect, High-Q plasmonic
cavity, nanoatenna,ect
Plasmon spectrum of
GNP(black) and
fluorescence spectrum
of single molecule(red)
CCD image of singe molecule
without GNP
importance of the antenna resonance in
the excitation enhancement
Schematic figure of single emitter coupled
with nanowire plasmon waveguide
a high degree of correlation was
seen between the time traces of
the fluorescence counts from the
quantum dot(red) and the end of
the coupled wire(blue)
Second-order correlation function of quantum
dot fluorescence.
Second-order correlation function between fluorescence
of the quantum dot and scattering from the nanowire end
Stop band
The resonance
of cavity
Simulation of the propagation of surface
plasmom in this DBRs cavity.
The modified fluorescence
spectrum of QD in this cavity
The cavity-induced fluorescence
The modified fluorescence
spectrum of NV center in
this cavity
Placing a silver/superconducting nanowire waveguide on top of a
germanium field-effect transistor
Various types of external quantum sources (parametric downconversion, an optical parametric oscillator, emitters in cryostats).
Embed emitters on the waveguides and excite them with an
external classical source.
Fix NV centers onto the tip-apex of a near-field optical microscope.
Develop on-chip electrically driven SPP sources.
A range of waveguides
LRSPP(Long-range surface plasmon-polariton)waveguide
A combination of different waveguides
Hybrid platform of metallic and dielectric waveguides
Use nanoparticles supporting coupled LSPs
More complex waveguide structure
Realize functioning reliable devices.
How to deal with loss.