Quantum Plasmonics 第七组 马润泽 边珂 李亚楠 王硕 闪普甲 张玺 5/24/2017 Quantum plasmonics M. S. Tame1*, K. R. McEnery1,2, ¸S. K. Özdemir3, J. Lee4, S. A. Maier1* and M. S. Kim2, 2013, Nature physics surface plasmons: electromagnetic excitations coupled to electron charge density waves on metal– dielectric interfaces or localized on metallic nanostructures enable the confinement of light to scales far below that of conventional optics; suffer from large losses Quantum plasmonics build devices that can exploit lossy nature for controlling dissipative quantum dynamics combine modern plasmonics with quantum optics, study the fundamental physics of surface plasmons and the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale. quantum plasmonics: descripe surface plasmons using quantum mechanics 1950s, Bohm and Pines, with work by Pines providing the very first model for quantizing plasma waves in metals; Hopfield, provided a quantum model for the polarization field describing the response of matter to light(did not consider loss); Ritchie,a surface plasma wave (SPW); Elson and Ritchie, used Hopfield's approach to provide the first quantized description of SPWs as `SPPs‘; Huttner and Barnett, `microscopic' quantization method, extending Hopfield's approach to polaritons in dispersive and lossy media(consider loss); A `macroscopic' approach has been developed using Green's functions Quantization of SPWs Quantize the electromagnetic field by accounting for the dispersive properties of the metal via the collective response of the electrons (1)classical mode description (2) discretization of classical modes (3) quantization via the correspondence principle SPP: solve Maxwell‘s equations， a general form of the vector potential A(r;t )→ a virtual square of area S = Lx *Ly is introduced on the surface.，a discretized form for A(r;t ) → Use the quantized Hamiltonian of a harmonic oscillator,including annihilation and creation operators only change :the mode function uK(r) which represents the classical wavelike properties of the excitation LSP: u(r) differ from r Optical confinement: traditional += Optical confinement: plasmon Optical fiber or cavity wall. Surface plasmon polariton. Survival of entanglement As shown in Figs, polarization-entangled photon converted into and back to from SPP remain polarizationentangled. Reference: 1. Paul G. Kwiat, etc, New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon pairs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337(1995) 2. E. Altewisher, etc, Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons, Nature 418, 304(2002) Decoherence and loss Reference: 1. Giuliana Di Martino etc, Quantum Statistics of Surface Plasmon Plaritons in Metallic Stripe Wave guides, Nano Lett. 12, 2504(2012) Decoherence and loss Wave-particle duality 5/24/2017 Quantum size effect the continuous electronic conductional band, valid at macroscopic scales, break up into discrete states when dimensions are small enough, making the Drude model no longer valid quantum tunnelling 5/24/2017 QR:quantum regime 5/24/2017 Part III：Single emitters coupled to SPPs 1.Weak coupling regime: 2.Strong coupling regime: Coherent energy transfer between emitter and Spp field 3. Some applications：Spp-induced Pucell effect, High-Q plasmonic cavity, nanoatenna,ect Plasmon spectrum of GNP(black) and fluorescence spectrum of single molecule(red) CCD image of singe molecule without GNP importance of the antenna resonance in the excitation enhancement Schematic figure of single emitter coupled with nanowire plasmon waveguide 16 a high degree of correlation was seen between the time traces of the fluorescence counts from the quantum dot(red) and the end of the coupled wire(blue) Second-order correlation function of quantum dot fluorescence. Second-order correlation function between fluorescence of the quantum dot and scattering from the nanowire end Stop band The resonance of cavity Simulation of the propagation of surface plasmom in this DBRs cavity. The modified fluorescence spectrum of QD in this cavity The cavity-induced fluorescence enhancement The modified fluorescence spectrum of NV center in this cavity Detection Placing a silver/superconducting nanowire waveguide on top of a germanium field-effect transistor Various types of external quantum sources (parametric downconversion, an optical parametric oscillator, emitters in cryostats). Embed emitters on the waveguides and excite them with an external classical source. Fix NV centers onto the tip-apex of a near-field optical microscope. Develop on-chip electrically driven SPP sources. Manipulation A range of waveguides LRSPP（Long－range surface plasmon－polariton）waveguide A combination of different waveguides Hybrid platform of metallic and dielectric waveguides Use nanoparticles supporting coupled LSPs More complex waveguide structure Perspectives Realize functioning reliable devices. How to deal with loss.