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Transcript
Chemistry of life
Why is chemistry important to
biology?
•
All organisms are made of matter
Why is chemistry important to
biology?
• In order to understand life processes, we
must understand matter and its properties.
Why is chemistry important to
biology?
• Life functions depend upon chemistry.
– For example: metabolism
Why is chemistry important to
biology?
• Many of our everyday experiences depend
upon chemistry.
– For example: Making kool aid or sweet tea.
Matter
• Anything that takes up space
– Examples: Your desk!
– Non-examples: true vacuum (not what you
clean your house with)
Element
• a substance made up of atoms that cannot
be broken down by chemical reactions
• Where can we find elements?
– Gold, air
• Where are elements listed?
– Periodic table
• How are elements identified?
– Atomic number
– protons
• How many elements are essential to living?
– Carbon being important to humans
• What four elements make up 96% of the
human body?
– Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen
• What are elements that are only required
in small amounts called?
– Trace elements
Atoms
• Smallest particle of an element that has
the characteristics of that element
• Atoms contain:
1. protons
2. neutrons
3. electrons
Structure of an atom
• Nucleus surrounded by electron cloud
• How do you find the number of protons in an atom?
– Atomic number
• How do you find the number of electrons in an atom?
– Atomic number
• How do you find the number of neutrons in an atom?
– Atomic mass – atomic number
• Can two elements have the same number of protons?
– no
Chemical Reactions
• Occur when reactants interact and change
their composition by forming or breaking
bonds, producing new products
– Involved in metabolism in biology
Acids and Bases
Acid
What is its pH? 0-6
What kind of ions does
it form? H+
Example:
Base
What is its pH? 8-14
What kind of ions does
it form? OHExample:
• Which is a stronger acid pH 2 or pH 5?
• Which is a stronger base pH 8 or pH 12?
Water
Why is it important?
• Four reasons why………………
– Polar solvent
– Resists temperature changes
– Expands when freezing, ice floats
– Hydrogen bonding
• weak bonds that can be very strong together and
causing capillary motion and surface tension
Polar