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Transcript
Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft
International cooperation in the field of
CCS - Approaches and implementation
9. September 2014| Jürgen-Friedrich Hake – Wolfgang Fischer
Assesment of Energy Technology and Energy
Systems
9. September 2014
Technology
• Efficiency
• Maturity
• etc.
Environment
• Local Emissions
• Climate Change
• etc.
Economy
• Costs
• Market Potential
• etc.
Society
• Public Perception
• Regulation
• etc.
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology Evaluation
Folie 2
Deployment of CCS – Why is there a need for
policy and regulation?
Carbon Capture and Storage:




fulfills primarily climate policy objectives
faces multiple market failures
requires financial and policy incentives
requires regulation regarding the technology deployment
9. September 2014
Folie 3
Exploring the idea of CCS
Cesare Marchetti publishes „On Geoengineering and the CO2 Problem“
(1976)




“This is not the place to think of each consumer
filling his own little balloons with CO2 to be
processed by his municipality. The problem has
to be tackled upstream.”
“[…] one of the numerous (a dozen) processes
of stripping CO2 from other gases […] which are
currently used in industry could be employed.”
“CO2 can be easily compressed […]. It can be
transported in pipelines that are essentially the
same as those for methane.”
“[CO2 disposal] could be done in the form of a
permanent underground storage, e.g. by using
exhausted gas fields.”
Source: Marchetti, C. (1976): On Geoengineering
and the CO2 Problem
9. September 2014
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology Evaluation
Folie 4
International networks and organizations
1990~2000
2010
2005
IPCC
2002: Scoping
meeting, Regina
UNFCCC
1992: UNFCCC launched
1997: Kyoto protocol
finalized
G8
2005: Special
report
2006: Inventory
guidelines
2014: CCS part of
mitigation (bio)
2005: „welcomes“
2006: Workshops CCS 2010: CCS
IPCC Special Report and CCS & CDM
eligible in
CDM
2005: Gleneagles 2008: Commitment to 20 largePlan of Action
scale demo projects by 2010
CEM
2011: Durban
Modalities &
Features for
CCS
2009: Energy
Ministers pro CCS
2009: 1st CEM
2010:
CCUS established
2014: CCUS
recommendations
CSLF
2003: Inaugural meeting
GCCSI
2010: CCS
Roadmap
2008: GCCSI
announcement
IEAGHG
1st GHGT conference
9. September 2014
2006-07 Early opportunities
workshops
2007: Capture-ready report
Source: de Coninck, Bäckstrand 2011, Schenk 2013
2013: Revised
Roadmap
2013: last update on
global status of CCS
GHGT- every 2 years
Folie 5
IPCC - Recognition of CCS as a
climate change mitigation option
IPCC - Special Report on CCS (2005)
Technical findings:
For geological storage, 99% of the CO2 is very likely to be retained over 100
years, and 99% of the CO2 is likely to be retained over 1,000 years.
Policy findings:
 CCS is an important option available to reduce the impacts of climate
change
 There is a need to increase public awareness of CCS
 There is a need for the development of suitable regulatory frameworks
9. September 2014
Source: IPCC SR on CCS
Folie 6
Incentivizing the worldwide deployment of CCS

Inclusion of CCS into the clean development mechanism project activities
(CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol
 G8
• 2005: Gleneagles Plan of Action – enhancing international
cooperation on CCS
• 2008: Target of launching 20 large-scale CCS demonstration
projects globally by 2010
• 2009 + 2010 Summits: Confirming the objectives
• 2014 Rome (G 7): promote use of CCS
 CSLF
• CCS demonstration project recognition
• Early opportunity workshops for stakeholders
• CCS Roadmap 2010
• IEA/CSLF Report to the Muskoka G8 Leaders’ Summit
 GCCSI
• Database on the status of CCS projects
9. September 2014
Folie 7
International collaboration
on CCS R&D and demonstration
CSLF, IEAGHG R&D Programme, IEA Clean Coal Centre
•
•
•
•
Knowledge-sharing (R&D, pilot and demonstration projects)
Networking
Identification of international best practice
Concept definition (e.g. „capture-ready“), development of guidelines
for regulatory purposes
9. September 2014
Folie 8
Development of CCS in Europe
(power generation only)
Project
Location
Project phase
Capture
Transport
Storage
White Rose (formerly UK
Oxy CCS Demonstration)*
UK
Planned
Oxy-fuel
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore deep saline
Teesside Low Carbon
(formerly Eston Grange CCS
Plant)
UK
Planned
Pre-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore deep saline
Rotterdam Opslag en Afvang
Netherlands
Demonstratieproject
Planned
Post-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore depleted oil
and/or gas reservoir
Peterhead Gas CCS Project
UK
Planned
Post-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore depleted oil
and/or gas reservoir
Industrikraft Möre AS
Norway
Norway
Planned
Post-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Not Specified
Don Valley Power Project
UK
Planned
Pre-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore deep saline
formations
Captain Clean Energy
Project (formerly Caledonia
Clean Energy Project)
UK
Planned
Pre-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore deep saline
formations
C.GEN North Killingholme
Power Project
UK
Planned
Pre-combustion
Onshore to offshore
pipeline
Offshore deep saline
formations
The GCCSI map identifies 60 CCS-projects around the world, of which 21 are active. Two of these active projects are power generation projects (Boundary Dam,
Kemper), both enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. 8 power generation projects are planned in Europe (see above); *the only project applying for NER300 2nd round.
9. September 2014
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology Evaluation
Source: GCCSI project database –
as of June 2014
Folie 9
CCS and Resistance in Germany
Strorage areas
Potential pipelines
CCS power plant
(cancelled)
Local/political resistance
Other strorage
areas Local/political
resistance
Demo plant
Jänschwalde by
Vattefall, part of the
EU EEPR funding,
cancelled in 2013
Source:
http://www.eurosolar.de/de/index.php?option=com_
wrapper&Itemid=289; [01. 07. 2009]
9. September 2014
Folie 10
Public survey in Germany:
Willingness to be active against CO2-Storage
Offshore-Storage
Onshore-Storage
Arithmetic
mean1
Standard
deviation2
Arithmetic mean
5,0
2,3
5,2
2,3
4,5
2,3
4,8
2,3
4,2
2,2
4,8
2,2
1
Standard
deviation 2
Region
Coastal District Nordfriesland
Costal District Aurich incl. Islands
Nationwide
1
Scale from 1 (= I totally oppose) to 7 (=I absolutely agree). The higher the arithmetic mean, the more willing people are to do something
against CO2-storage (e. g. demonstrations). 2 Measures the amount of variation or dispersion from the average.
Source: IEK-STE 2914, own representative survey
9. September 2014
Folie 11
Summary on international cooperation in the
field of CCS

The key actors of international cooperation are governments, industry and
academia that cooperate in the framework of international organizations,
scientific organizations, and R&D networks

CCS was recognized as a climate change mitigation option after the release
of the IPCC SR on CCS

The international organizations address the deployment of CCS by means
of goal-setting, roadmapping activities, and inclusion of CCS in the existing
mechanisms of international climate change mitigation

The international R&D networks focus on knowledge sharing and contribute
to technical concepts‘ definition for regulatory purposes

But – limited outreach ? - Local/political resistance against CCS, in
particular storage; - in EU not a single CCS project was awarded funding
under the first round of the NER300.
9. September 2014
Folie 12
IEA CCS Roadmap 2013
•
•
•
•
•
•
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be a critical component in
a portfolio of low-carbon energy technologies if governments
undertake ambitious measures to combat climate change.
The individual component technologies required for capture,
transport and storage are generally well understood and, in some
cases, technologically mature.
Governments and industry must ensure that the incentive and
regulatory frameworks are in place to deliver upwards of 30
operating CCS projects by 2020 across a range of processes and
industrial sectors.
CCS is not only about electricity generation. Almost half (45%) of
the CO2 captured between 2015 and 2050 in the 2DS is from
industrial applications.
Given their rapid growth in energy demand, the largest deployment
of CCS will need to occur in non-Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.
This decade is critical for moving deployment of CCS beyond the
demonstration phase in accordance with the 2DS.
9. September 2014
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology EvaluationFolie
13
Clean Energy and CCS – Focus on Industrial
Applications
• Energy‐intensive industries account for a
significant part of global carbon dioxide
(CO2) emissions.
• CCS is the only option to decarbonize
many industrial sectors.
• CCS in industrial applications requires
more attention from policy makers.
• Demonstration of CCS in industrial
applications is not happening fast enough.
• Policies must consider the global
competitiveness of industrial sectors.
9. September 2014
Folie 14
IEA CCS 2014 – What lies in store for CCS? Key
Actions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduce financial support mechanisms for demonstration and
early deployment of CCS to drive private financing of projects.
Implement policies that encourage storage exploration,
characterization and development for CCS projects.
Develop national laws and regulations as well as provisions for
multilateral finance that effectively require new-build, base-load,
fossil-fuel power generation capacity to be CCS-ready.
Prove capture systems at pilot scale in industrial applications
where CO2 capture has not yet been demonstrated.
Significantly increase efforts to improve understanding among
the public and stakeholders of CCS technology and the
importance of its deployment.
Reduce the cost of electricity from power plants equipped with
capture through continued technology development and use of
highest possible efficiency power generation cycles.
• Encourage efficient development of CO2 transport
infrastructure by anticipating locations of future demand centres
and future volumes of CO2.
9. September 2014
Folie 15
References
IPCC:
IPCC SR on CCS (2005): https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B1gFp6Ioo3akWFVURndxRU5xU1E/edit?pli=1
IPCC (2006) 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IGES, Japan.
Roadmaps:
IEA (2009) Technology Roadmap. Carbon capture and Storage. http://www.iea.org/papers/2009/CCS_Roadmap.pdf.
CSLF (2010) Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum technology roadmap. A global response to the challenge of climate change. February 27: 2012,
http://www.cslforum.org/publications/documents/CSLF_Technology_Roadmap_2010.pdf.
COM(2011) 112 (2011) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee
of the Regions. A roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050. The European Commission, http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0112:FIN:EN:PDF.
IEA (2011) Technology Roadmap - Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications. OECD / IEA / UNIDO,
http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/ccs_industry.pdf.
Policy and regulation:
IEA (2012): Carbon capture and storage - Legal and Regulatory Review, Edition 3. OECD/IEA, Paris
CSLF (2010) CSLF incentives registry http://www.cslforum.org/publications/index.html?cid=nav_publications?cid=nav_publications.
KERR, T., HAVERCROFT, I. & DIXON, T. (2009) Legal and regulatory developments associated with carbon dioxide capture and storage: A global update. Energy
Procedia, 1:1, 4395-4402.
KUCKSHINRICHS, W., HAKE, J.-F., Eds. (2014) Cabon Capture, Storage and Use - Technical, Economic, Environmental and Societal Perspectives. Springer International
Publishing, Cham, in print:
RAI, V., VICTOR, D. G. & THURBER, M. C. (2009) Carbon capture and storage at scale : Lessons from the growth of analogous energy technologies. PESD Stanford,
Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.
RUSSIAL, T. J. (2011) Carbon capture and storage – legal and regulatory framework. CCC/179.
CCS in CDM:
DECISION 7/CMP.6 (2010) Carbon dioxide capture and storage in geological formations as clean development mechanism project activities. Preprint, 27. Juni, 2011,
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cmp6/eng/12a02.pdf#page=27.
CCS global status updates:
IEA/CSLF (2010) IEA/CSLF report to the Muskoka 2010 G8 summit - Carbon capture and storage - Progress and next steps. OECD/IEA, CSLF, prepared with the cooperation of the Global CCS Institute, August 16: 2010, http://www.iea.org/papers/2010/ccs_g8.pdf.
GCCSI (2011) The Global Status of CCS: 2011. Canberra, Global CCS Institute.
International cooperation in the field of CCS:
BÄCKSTRAND, K. (2008) Accountability of networked climate governance: The rise of transnational climate partnerships. Global Environmental Politics, 8:3.
HAGEMANN, M., MOLTMANN, S., PALENBERG, A., DE VISSER, E., HÖHNE, N., JUNG, M. & BAKKER, S. (2011) CATO-2 Deliverable WP 2.3-D03, Background paper
on “Role of CCS in the international climate regime”.
DE CONINCK, H. & BÄCKSTRAND, K. (2011) An International Relations perspective on the global politics of carbon dioxide capture and storage. Global Environmental
Change, 21:2, 368-378.
DE CONINCK, H., FISCHER, C., NEWELL, R. G. & UENO, T. (2008) International technology-oriented agreements to address climate change. Energy Policy, 36, 335-356.
SCHENK, O. (2013) Interest Mediation and Policy Formulation in the European Union. Influence of Transnational Technology-Oriented Agreements on European Policy in
the Field of Carbon Capture and Storage. Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich.
9. September 2014
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology Evaluation
Folie 16
Thank you for the attention!
Questions?
[email protected]
9. September 2014
Institute for Energy and Climate Research
System Analysis and Technology Evaluation
Folie 17