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Transcript
Potential Models for Future Higher Education
Cooperation between South Africa and
Norway
Environment and climate
University of the Western Cape,
27 November 2009
www.umb.no
Poul Wisborg,
Department of
International
Environment and
Development
Studies (Noragric)
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Mother Earth Crying, Svalbard
’Climate change’ –
material change and
search for meaning.
Michael S. Nolan,
Bulls Press
www.umb.no
3
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
Norway in the Nordic region
4
www.umb.no
Source: Wikipedia, entry: Nordic Council
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Key points
 Global climate change is real – but the discourse needs
critical attention
 Norway and South Africa: high emissions, resistance to
change
 Are there prospects for solidarity and cooperation
among South African and Norwegian peoples?
 How may cooperation in higher education contribute?
– UMB examples
– Approach
– Thematic focus
– Modes of cooperation
 Conclusion
www.umb.no
5
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Climate change is real - but discourse
needs critical attention
 Human induced global climate change well
supported by evidence
 Need for critical eyes:
– Discourse versus policy versus practice
– Weather, cycles and trends may be natural
– Regional and local impact often uncertain
 Exacerbates environment and development
problems: land, energy, transport, poverty,
inequality, health – but does not replace them
 Avoid ”climate change monster discourse” that
swallows other ethical concerns
www.umb.no
6
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Vegetable farm on the Limpopo River
 Family-owned, close
to 500 workers
 Owner: Farming in SA
is “high risk” …
 “In what way?”:
1.
2.
Google Earth,
10 April 2008
www.umb.no
3.
4.
5.
Diseases
Climate change
•
Irrigation water
•
Frost
•
Drought/heat
Energy
Markets
Politics
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Educational collaboration: environment and climate
Livestock herding, Pella, Namaqualand
8
www.umb.no
Educational collaboration: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Norway and South Africa: high emissions,
resistance to change
Norway
South Africa
 Oil and gas as main base of  Coal main source of energy,
economy
 Decades of increase in CO2
emissions against public
commitments
 About 54 million tons CO2
per year (total), about 12
tons per capita (excluding
shipping and air transport)
 ”Excuse”: ???
base of major industries
 About 440 million tons CO2 per
year (total) (of which 220
million by ESKOM), about 9 tons
per capita
 ”Excuses”: Development, ’poor
country’, African averages,
other struggles, such as
democracy, inequality and
HIV/AIDS
Grønås, Sigbjørn: 'Norway's double standards', Aftenposten 14 July 2008, p. 6-7
Groenewald, Yolandi: SA on low-carbon diet, Mail & Guardian 6-12 November 2009, p 41
www.umb.no
9
Educational collaboration: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
CO2 emissions – a similar challenge (?)
12
10
8
South Africa
6
Norway
4
2
0
Citizen
IPCC 2050*
CO2 emission – tons per capita per year
*) International Panel on Climate Change estimated level in 2050
to ensure temperature increase below 2.0 degrees C by 2100
Grønås, Sigbjørn: 'Norway's double standards', Aftenposten 14 July 2008, p. 6-7
Groenewald, Yolandi: SA on low-carbon diet, Mail & Guardian 6-12 November 2009, p 41
www.umb.no
10
Educational collaboration: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
“Norway’s double standards”
“..Norway’s policy is not consistent with the goal of only
two degrees increase (by 2100). Our emissions are
several times higher than what the world can sustain to
reach this goal. We are even claiming a right to continue
doing the same in future. The media give the impression
that we are champions in climate reductions. The double
standards have never been more manifest”.
- Professor Sigbjørn Grønås, University of Bergen
'Norway's double standards', Aftenposten 14 July 2008, p. 6-7
www.umb.no
11
DETTE ER TITTELEN PÅ PRESENTASJONEN
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Newspaper headline:
“One plant = the whole of Norway”
 Secunda coal based plant owned by SASOL
 CO2 emissions 57 million tons (Norway
2006: 54 million tons)
 Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg visit April
2008
 Current collaboration
Mathismoen, Ole: ‘One plant = the whole of Norway’,
Aftenposten, 18 April 2008, p. 6
www.umb.no
12
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Prospects for solidarity and cooperation among
South African and Norwegian peoples?
Con
Pro
World order
North-South divide and Both with relatively high
corresponing positions profile in current
negotiations
Government
History of neglect
Recent signals of high
priority
Economy/
resources
Strong carbon
dependency
Similar challenges of
climate transformation
Peoples
Distance; elite interest
in status quo
Solidarity in anti-apartheid
struggle
Business
Those benefiting from New enterprises in
status quo;
renewable energy, e.g.
commercialise problem wind
Civil society
Tendency to focus on
Some strong NGOs; media
adaptation, not causes
www.umb.no
13
Educational collaboration: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
How may cooperation in higher education
contribute?
1. UMB involvement
2. Approach
3. Thematic focus
4. Modes of operation
www.umb.no
14
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
1. UMB involvement: examples
 Ten years of collaboration with PLAAS, UWC: land,
agriculture, natural resources, poverty (2000-2009)
 Conservation farming in Zambia
 Involved in Agricultural Research and Development
(ARDEP), Malawi
 Climate and forest cooperation with Sokoine University
of Agriculture, Tanzania
 Thor Heyerdahl professorship in Climate and
Development
 Cooperation and proposals on water management with
IWMI, South Africa
 BA, MA (2) and PhD programmes in International
Environment and Development
Studies
www.umb.no
15
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
2. Approach
 Critical and independent
 Politics of knowledge –
political ecology
 Interdisciplinary
 Comparative, sensitive
to context
 Collaborative
 Participatory
PLAAS researchers visit to
www.umb.no
Norwegian rural areas (2000)
16
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
3. Thematic focus (selected issues)
Environmental justice*
Land/resource tenure and displacement**
Renewable energy
Food production and food security
Settlement and transport
Climate modelling
Examples:
*) Cooperation between Univ. of Bergen, UCT and ACCESS (Africa
Centre for Climate and Earth System Science)
**) PLAAS, UWC and Noragric
www.umb.no
17
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
4. Modes of cooperation (some points)
1.
A new, well-resourced multilateral research
programme –Nordic and southern African dimension
2.
Joint degree programmes
3.
Master and PhD scholarships and funds for joint
(south-north) field research
4.
Collaboration with civil society,
business and governments
5.
Reduce ecological foot print
of universities: waste, energy,
work transport, e-learning,
travel – educating citizens
of a fragile world
www.umb.no
18
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Conclusion: Cooperation in
higher education,
Environment and climate
While many collaborative efforts exist ...
... strategic planning by universities and fresh
public resources are needed to make them ..
... more creative (awareness, knowledge and
innovation) and more effective steps towards
environmental responsibility.
A useful first step could be a collaborative, strategic
planning session in the first half of 2010.
www.umb.no
19
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
Landscapes - constraints and opportunities
Farmland, Eastern Cape
www.umb.no
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
Carrying together?
From the Gustav Vigeland statue park, Oslo
21
www.umb.no
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Adapting to new circumstances?
Lions playing in the snow: Kristiansand Zoo, Norway, 2009
(Aftenposten
www.umb.no
22
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Educational cooperation: environment and climate
UMB Campus, 2009
Thank you ....
23
www.umb.no