Geography Project Group 3 “Copenhagen Accord fails to minimize global warming.” Melissa Ho Fiona Kam Agatha Ng Vanessa Pang rss.sciam.com/click.phd...6a8968244/ Most-challenging International Q&A !!! ~ All about The Copenhagen Accord Kytot Protocol(2006) stated that Less Developed Countries did not need to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. A. True B. False A. True Kyoto Protocol : Less Developed Countries did not need to reduce CO2 emission. More Developed Countries thought that it was unfair to them as LDCs did contributed to the increased greenhouse gases. the Copenhagen Summit (7.12.2009-18.12.2009) was held to discuss a fairer accord concerning the coping with the global climate change X-File ! Copenhagen Accord was compromised before the Copenhagen Summit ended on the basis of the consensus of five countries, including the US, China, India, Brazil and South Africa While >110 countries agreed with the Accord What was recognized in the Copenhagen Accord? A. the increase in global temperature should be below 2 degree Celcius and greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized B. Less Developed Countries should speed up their economic development by any means as soon as possible X- File ! Copenhagen Accord Stated a few actions to achieve the above goal (rise in global temperature < 2TC) 1) different countries with different capabilities should cooperate together to cope with the climate change 2) financial aid should be provided to Less Developed Countries LDCs could enjoy technology mechanism to reduce CO2 emission 3) Countries should cooperate to reduce global emission How many participating countries are there A. B. < 50 countries >110 countries B. >110 countries Participating countries > 110 countries More Developed Countries The United States, Japan, Canada, France and Germany Less Developed Countries China, India, Indonesia and Brazil “Group Discussion” Topic: Discuss the viewpoints of MDCs and LDCs towards the Copenhagen Accord Representative: USA More Developed Countries agreed with the importance and need of (1)reducing emission of greenhouse (2)increasing the transparency of monitoring system 美國總統奧巴馬則說，所有主要經濟大國都要採取實際行 動減排，並要提高減排透明度和建立監察機制。奧巴馬警 告，中國必須放寬反對設立監察機制的立場，因為缺乏問 責的任何協議皆無非是一紙空文。他承認在峰會的成果將 是不理想的，是「一個不完美的框架」，但促請各國接納。 Representative: China Less Developed Countries agreed that countries with different capabilities should have different responsibilities in coping with the same goal-- minimizing global warming MDCs should provide financial aid and technology mechanism to LDCs MDCs should reduce greatly their emissions of greenhouse gases a monitoring system is not needed. 溫家寶重申，各國必須採取「共同但有區別的責任」原則。發達國家必 須率先大幅量化減排並向發展中國家提供資金和技術支持，這是不可推 卸的道義責任，也是必須履行的法律義務。發展中國家應根據本國國情， 在發達國家資金和技術轉讓支持下，盡可能減緩溫室氣體排放，適應氣 候變化。 奧巴馬警告，中國必須放寬反對設立監察機制的立場， International Effort Geograpedia : Copenhagen Accord Signing Copenhagen Accord is a form of International cooperation which is by reaching consensus on a particular issue International effort is important in reducing greenhouse gases because … Increasing greenhouse gases will accelerate global warming situation of global warming has worsened Disastrous consequences will be resulted if no action is taken International Effort For example, Atmosphere: frequent heat waves and stronger hurricanes Lithosphere: spread of desertification Hydrosphere: more droughts in inlands, more flooding in low-lying areas, rising sea levels and death of countries Biosphere: More spread of infectious diseases, extinction of animals and loss of biodiversity International Effort Global warming will affect countries all over the world One country’s effort in reducing greenhouse gases is pointless as though that country’s greenhouse gases are reduced, global warming can not be minimized if other countries do not reduce their emission of greenhouse gases International Effort -LDCs are much poorer than MDCs So MDCs should provide financial aid to LDCs so that LDCs could enjoy improved technology mechanism to reduce C2 emission in a more efficient way Countries in the world need to cooperate together to reduce greenhouse gases International effort is important in reducing greenhouse gases Funding Geograpedia: Conclusion from Copenhagen Accord short-term and long-term funding will be Established the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund provided (come from public and private sectors) Short-term: USD $30billion will be provided between 2010–2012 - prioritized for the most vulnerable developed countries -help Less Developed Countries which are poorer to cope with climate change to minimize the global warming Funding Long-term: -More Developed countries would mobilize jointly USD 100billion by2020 - most of the money would go to the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund -for reducing emissions which are due to deforestation and forest degradation -for supporting the transfer and development of technology in Less Developed Countries Less Developed countries might be more capable of reducing emissions Emission Targets Geograpedia: Conclusion from Copenhagen Accord each country have to submit a target of reducing the volume of emission by the end of January 2010 Limitations Geograleaks: Evaluation of the funding 1)The Long-term adaptation funds did not state clearly what the sources of funds are. More Developed Countries did not have to bear concrete responsibilities in providing financial aid to Less Developed Countries MDCs may choose to provide less financial aid to LDCs Less Developed Countries may not receive sufficient fund to improve technology level so as to minimize global warming Geograleaks: Evaluation of summiting emission targets 2)The measure of asking countries to summit emission targets -without a global guide for countries’ reference • Both MDCs and LDCs are free to choose how much CO2 they wanted to reduce the amount may be very small that it could not help much in minimizing global warming the amount of CO2 that countries would like to reduce was for information purpose only • Without monitoring system to check if countries have fulfilled their pledged responsibilities countries may actually failed to reduce Co2 emission failed to minimize global warming Difficulties in putting what the Accord stated into practice Self-interest of different countries: Less Developed Countries: ~industries are their main economic pillars -cutting Co2 emission suffer from economic losses e.g. outputs of factories will drop GDP drops worsen national economy http://greenlifestylemagazine.net/issue-4/copenhagen-accord.php More Developed Countries: ~cutting CO2 emission -government: order power station to generate fewer electricity -citizens: need to reduce the use of electrical appliances inconvenience to most citizens Citizens do not do much that helps minimizing global warming *Every country do not want to sacrifice Hindered long-term international co-operation Hard to minimize greenhouse gases emission Conclusion 1) There was a call for raising fund, reducing greenhouse gases greatly and establishment of Technology Mechanism 2) No concrete amount of C02 reduction needed was stated (countries may reduce few only ) 3) No monitoring system is established no one knows if the emission of one country has been reduced or not 4) No legal binding no punishment will be given even if they did not fulfilled what they promised 5) As “CA” was not agreed by most of the countries not an accord with legal status to all countries in the world countries could withdraw from the “CA” even they once agreed 6) There is high cost of putting what the Accord stated into fact Thank you!