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Transcript
Geography
Project
Group 3
“Copenhagen
Accord fails to
minimize global
warming.”
Melissa Ho
Fiona Kam
Agatha Ng
Vanessa Pang
rss.sciam.com/click.phd...6a8968244/
Most-challenging
International Q&A !!!
~ All about The
Copenhagen Accord
 Kytot
Protocol(2006) stated that Less
Developed Countries did not need to
reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2)
emission.
A. True
B. False
A. True
Kyoto Protocol : Less Developed Countries did not
need to reduce CO2 emission.
More Developed Countries thought that it was
unfair to them as LDCs did contributed to the
increased greenhouse gases.
 the Copenhagen Summit (7.12.2009-18.12.2009)
was held to discuss a fairer accord concerning the
coping with the global climate change
X-File !
 Copenhagen
Accord was compromised
before the Copenhagen Summit ended
 on the basis of the consensus of five
countries, including the US, China, India,
Brazil and South Africa
 While
>110 countries agreed with the
Accord
What was recognized in the
Copenhagen Accord?
A. the increase in global temperature
should be below 2 degree Celcius and
greenhouse gas concentration in the
atmosphere should be stabilized
B. Less Developed Countries should speed
up their economic development by any
means as soon as possible
X- File !
Copenhagen Accord

Stated a few actions to achieve the above
goal (rise in global temperature < 2TC)
1) different countries with different capabilities
should cooperate together to cope with the
climate change
2) financial aid should be provided to Less
Developed Countries LDCs could enjoy
technology mechanism to reduce CO2
emission
3) Countries should cooperate to reduce
global emission
How many participating
countries are there
A.
B.
< 50 countries
>110 countries
B. >110 countries
Participating countries
> 110 countries
More Developed
Countries
The United States, Japan,
Canada, France and
Germany
Less Developed
Countries
China, India, Indonesia
and Brazil
“Group Discussion”
Topic: Discuss the viewpoints of MDCs and
LDCs towards the Copenhagen Accord
Representative: USA
More Developed Countries
agreed with the importance and need of
(1)reducing emission of greenhouse
(2)increasing the transparency of monitoring system
美國總統奧巴馬則說,所有主要經濟大國都要採取實際行
動減排,並要提高減排透明度和建立監察機制。奧巴馬警
告,中國必須放寬反對設立監察機制的立場,因為缺乏問
責的任何協議皆無非是一紙空文。他承認在峰會的成果將
是不理想的,是「一個不完美的框架」,但促請各國接納。
Representative: China
Less Developed Countries






agreed that countries with different capabilities should
have different responsibilities in coping with the same
goal-- minimizing global warming
MDCs should provide financial aid and technology
mechanism to LDCs
MDCs should reduce greatly their emissions of
greenhouse gases
a monitoring system is not needed.
溫家寶重申,各國必須採取「共同但有區別的責任」原則。發達國家必
須率先大幅量化減排並向發展中國家提供資金和技術支持,這是不可推
卸的道義責任,也是必須履行的法律義務。發展中國家應根據本國國情,
在發達國家資金和技術轉讓支持下,盡可能減緩溫室氣體排放,適應氣
候變化。
奧巴馬警告,中國必須放寬反對設立監察機制的立場,
International Effort
Geograpedia : Copenhagen Accord
 Signing
Copenhagen Accord is a form of
International cooperation which is by reaching
consensus on a particular issue
 International



effort is important in reducing
greenhouse gases because …
Increasing greenhouse gases will accelerate
global warming
situation of global warming has worsened
Disastrous consequences will be resulted if no
action is taken
International Effort
For example,
 Atmosphere: frequent heat waves and
stronger hurricanes
 Lithosphere: spread of desertification
 Hydrosphere: more droughts in inlands,
more flooding in low-lying areas, rising
sea levels and death of countries
 Biosphere: More spread of infectious
diseases, extinction of animals and loss of
biodiversity
International Effort


Global warming will affect countries all
over the world
One country’s effort in reducing
greenhouse gases is pointless as though
that country’s greenhouse gases are
reduced, global warming can not be
minimized if other countries do not reduce
their emission of greenhouse gases
International Effort
 -LDCs
are much poorer than MDCs
 So MDCs should provide financial aid to LDCs
so that LDCs could enjoy improved
technology mechanism to reduce C2
emission in a more efficient way
 Countries in the world need to cooperate
together to reduce greenhouse gases
 International effort is important in reducing
greenhouse gases
Funding
Geograpedia:
Conclusion from Copenhagen Accord
short-term
and long-term funding will be
Established
the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund
provided (come from public and private sectors)
Short-term:
USD $30billion will be provided between 2010–2012
- prioritized for the most vulnerable developed
countries
-help Less Developed Countries which are poorer
to cope with climate change to minimize the global
warming

Funding
 Long-term:
-More Developed countries would mobilize
jointly USD 100billion by2020
- most of the money would go to the
Copenhagen Green Climate Fund
-for reducing emissions which are due to
deforestation and forest degradation
-for supporting the transfer and
development of technology in Less
Developed Countries
 Less Developed countries might be more
capable of reducing emissions
Emission Targets
Geograpedia:
Conclusion from Copenhagen Accord
 each
country have to submit a
target of reducing the volume of
emission by the end of January 2010
Limitations
Geograleaks: Evaluation of the funding
1)The Long-term adaptation funds
did
not state clearly what the sources of funds are.
 More Developed Countries did not have to bear concrete
responsibilities in providing financial aid to Less Developed
Countries
 MDCs may choose to provide less financial aid to LDCs
Less Developed Countries may not receive sufficient fund
to improve technology level so as to minimize global
warming
Geograleaks: Evaluation of summiting
emission targets
2)The measure of asking countries to summit emission targets
 -without a global guide for countries’ reference
• Both MDCs and LDCs are free to choose how much CO2
they wanted to reduce
the amount may be very small that it could not help much
in minimizing global warming
 the amount of CO2 that countries would like to reduce was
for information purpose only
• Without monitoring system to check if countries have
fulfilled their pledged responsibilities
 countries may actually failed to reduce Co2 emission
failed to minimize global warming
Difficulties in putting what the
Accord stated into practice
Self-interest of different countries:
 Less Developed Countries:
~industries are their main economic pillars
-cutting Co2 emission suffer from economic
losses
e.g. outputs of factories will drop GDP drops
worsen national economy
http://greenlifestylemagazine.net/issue-4/copenhagen-accord.php
More Developed Countries:
~cutting CO2 emission
-government: order power station to generate fewer
electricity
-citizens: need to reduce the use of electrical
appliances
 inconvenience to most citizens
Citizens do not do much that helps minimizing global
warming
 *Every country do not want to sacrifice
 Hindered long-term international co-operation
 Hard to minimize greenhouse gases emission

Conclusion
 1)
There was a call for raising fund,
reducing greenhouse gases greatly and
establishment of Technology Mechanism





2) No concrete amount of C02 reduction needed was
stated (countries may reduce few only )
3) No monitoring system is established no one knows if
the emission of one country has been reduced or not
4) No legal binding no punishment will be given even if
they did not fulfilled what they promised
5) As “CA” was not agreed by most of the countries not
an accord with legal status to all countries in the world
countries could withdraw from the “CA” even they once
agreed
6) There is high cost of putting what the Accord stated into
fact
Thank you!