Climate Change and Changing Values in Norway: Are there limits to adaptation? Karen O’Brien Department of Sociology and Human Geography University of Oslo, Norway Values • Something intrinsically desirable • Context specific vs. universal • Result from psychological needs and social interactions • Related to needs, worldviews, and structures and stages of consciousness • Differential • Dynamic Traditional structures • • • • Absolutistic values Mythic and ethnocentric worldview Conformist self-identity Rule-dominated cognition Key concerns related to climate change: loss of cultural identity or group identity Prioritized adaptations might recognize local knowledge, support traditional sectors and livelihoods, preserve cultural icons. Modern structures • • • • Multiplistic values Rational, worldcentric worldview Conscientious self-identity Rational cognition Key concerns related to climate change: outcomes that affect material well-being Prioritized adaptations might emphasize technology and draw on results of costbenefit analyses and future scenarios Post-modern structures • • • • Relativistic values Pluralistic, worldcentric worldview Individualistic self-identity Meta-systemic cognition Key concerns related to climate change: ecosystem integrity, moral and ethical perspectives, social justice and equity. Prioritized adaptations might focus on the poor and marginalized, future generations, and the role of ecosystem services. Values in Norway • Traditional: rural areas, nature, family • Modern: individualism, economic development, material wealth, technology, scientific progress • Post-modern: Rejection of social hierarchies, promotion of equity across gender and class, and between rural and urban areas. Snow cover changes in Norway • Winter temperature increases of 2.5 – 4oC by 2100; • More winter precipitation in eastern Norway; • 40% decrease in number of days with suitable skiing conditions by 2050 (compared to 1981-1999 period) Traditional values • Snow cover is important to local and national identity • Prioritized adaptations might preserve heritage, tradition, and identity (preservation of cultural landscapes and a sense of place) • Challenge: to transform livelihoods and maintain a sense of community Modern values • Snow cover as a medium for winter sports (an important economic sector) • Prioritized adaptations might focus on snowmaking technologies, indoor snow domes, artificially cooled ski tracks • Challenge: reconstruct or reinvent identity (identify new or niche markets) Post-modern values • Snow cover as a component of ecosystem integrity; distant impacts of climate change also a concern • Prioritized adaptations might focus on adaptive management, building resilience, promoting sustainability. • Challenge: promote mitigation as a form of adaptation • Can climate change adaptations take into account a spectrum of values that correspond to diverse human human needs and multiple persectives and worldviews? • Can climate change adaptations take into account a spectrum of values that correspond to diverse human human needs and multiple persectives and worldviews? • Whose values count?