Any structure or behavior that increases an organism’s chance of survival. Sphinx moth Adaptations related to an organism’s form, or structure. MIMICRY-When one harmless species evolves to look like a dangerous one. CAMOUFLAGE When a species evolves to have colors and patterns similar to its natural environment allowing it to blend in thus hiding it from predators. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php http://science.howstuffworks.com/animal-camouflage2.htm Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College. Structural adaptations of desert plants: Long, deep roots to reach water deep underground Hairy leaves for shading Thick stems and leaves, which store water Structural adaptations of plants in the rain forest: Shallow roots for growing in poor soil Prop and stilt roots (like crutches) that help support the plant during storms Adaptations related to the way the organism’s body works. Some desert plants have no leaves. This prevents water loss through transpiration. Flowers of some desert plants open at night, allowing nocturnal animals to pollinate them. Desert plants grow more slowly, which requires less water. Things animals do to help them survive. Migrate- travel to warmer weather or for food. (birds, some bats, caribou, elk, and whales) Hibernate- deep sleep in which the animal’s body temperature drops and heartbeat and breathing slow down. (bears, skunks, chipmunks, and some bats) Adaptations to: Cold environments-blubber, layers of fur, feathers Dry climates-active at night High altitudes-more red blood cells for oxygen Deep water-flexible rib cages Other Adaptations Reproduction-pheromones to attract mates Excellent vision-hawks and eagles Protection-quills of porcupines, odor of skunks The process by which two species each evolve in response to changes in the other. Most likely to occur when two species have a close relationship and are dependent on each other in some way. Adaptations that plants have to attract their pollinators (shape, color, and odor of flowers) Bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds, bats Also occurs in predator-prey relationships. Some animals produce toxins to prevent predators from eating them Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have coevolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival.