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Any structure or behavior that increases an
organism’s chance of survival.
Sphinx moth
Adaptations related to an organism’s form, or
 MIMICRY-When one harmless species evolves to look
like a dangerous one.
 CAMOUFLAGE When a species evolves to have colors
and patterns similar to its natural environment
allowing it to blend in thus hiding it from predators.
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College.
Structural adaptations of desert plants:
 Long, deep roots to reach water deep
 Hairy leaves for shading
 Thick stems and leaves, which store water
Structural adaptations of plants in the rain
 Shallow roots for growing in poor soil
 Prop and stilt roots (like crutches) that help
support the plant during storms
Adaptations related to the way the
organism’s body works.
 Some desert plants have no leaves. This prevents
water loss through transpiration.
 Flowers of some desert plants open at night,
allowing nocturnal animals to pollinate them.
 Desert plants grow more slowly, which requires
less water.
Things animals do to help them survive.
 Migrate- travel to warmer weather or for food.
(birds, some bats, caribou, elk, and whales)
 Hibernate- deep sleep in which the animal’s body
temperature drops and heartbeat and breathing
slow down. (bears, skunks, chipmunks, and some
Adaptations to:
Cold environments-blubber, layers of fur, feathers
Dry climates-active at night
High altitudes-more red blood cells for oxygen
Deep water-flexible rib cages
Other Adaptations
 Reproduction-pheromones to attract mates
 Excellent vision-hawks and eagles
 Protection-quills of porcupines, odor of skunks
The process by which two species each evolve in
response to changes in the other.
Most likely to occur when two species have a
close relationship and are dependent on each
other in some way.
 Adaptations that plants have to attract their
pollinators (shape, color, and odor of flowers)
 Bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds, bats
 Also occurs in predator-prey relationships. Some
animals produce toxins to prevent predators from
eating them
and the
flowers they
pollinate have
coevolved so
that both have
dependent on
each other for