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Transcript
DNA Technology
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Selective Breeding
•Selective Breeding
• Selective breeding allows only those organisms
with desired characteristics to produce the next
generation.
• Nearly all domestic animals and most crop plants
have been produced by selective breeding.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Selective Breeding
–Humans use selective breeding to pass
desired traits on to the next generation of
organisms.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Selective Breeding
–Hybridization
• Hybridization is the crossing of dissimilar
individuals to bring together the best of both
organisms.
• Hybrids, the individuals produced by such crosses,
are often hardier than either of the parents.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Selective Breeding
–Inbreeding
• Inbreeding is the continued breeding of individuals
with similar characteristics.
• Inbreeding helps to ensure that the characteristics
that make each breed unique will be preserved.
• Serious genetic problems can result from excessive
inbreeding.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
How do scientists make changes to DNA?
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Scientists use different techniques to:
•
•
•
•
extract DNA from cells
cut DNA into smaller pieces
identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule
make unlimited copies of DNA
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
In genetic engineering, biologists make changes in
the DNA code of a living organism.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
DNA Extraction
DNA can be extracted from most cells by a simple
chemical procedure.
The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from
the other cell parts.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Cutting DNA
Most DNA molecules are too large to be analyzed,
so biologists cut them into smaller fragments using
restriction enzymes.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Each restriction enzyme cuts DNA at a specific
sequence of nucleotides.
Recognition sequences
DNA sequence
Restriction enzyme EcoR I cuts
the DNA into fragments
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Sticky end
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Separating DNA
In gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are placed
at one end of a porous gel, and an electric voltage
is applied to the gel.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Power
source
DNA plus restriction
enzyme
Longer
fragments
Mixture of
DNA
fragments
Shorter
fragments
Gel
Gel Electrophoresis
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
The Tools of Molecular Biology
First, restriction
enzymes cut DNA
into fragments.
The DNA fragments
are poured into
wells on a gel.
DNA plus
restriction enzyme
Mixture of DNA
fragments
Gel Electrophoresis
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Gel
The Tools of Molecular Biology
Power
source
An electric voltage
is applied to the
gel.
The smaller the
DNA fragment, the
faster and farther it
will move across
the gel.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Power
source
Longer
fragments
Shorter
fragments
Gel Electrophoresis
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Making Copies
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique that
allows biologists to make copies of genes.
Small amounts of DNA can be multiplied making it
easier to analyze.
Made possible by an enzyme found in a bacterium
living in hot springs in Yellow Stone National Park.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
DNA heated to
separate strands
DNA polymerase adds
complementary strand
DNA fragment
to be copied
PCR cycles 1
DNA copies 1
2
2
3
4
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4
8
5 etc.
16 etc.
Recombinant DNA
Host Cell DNA
Target gene
Modified Host Cell DNA
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•Transforming Bacteria
–What happens during cell transformation?
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transforming Bacteria
–During transformation, a cell takes in DNA
from outside the cell. The external DNA
becomes a component of the cell's DNA.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transforming Bacteria
• Foreign DNA is first joined to a small, circular DNA
molecule known as a plasmid.
• Plasmids are found naturally in some bacteria and
have been very useful for DNA transfer.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transforming Bacteria
•The plasmid has a genetic marker—a
gene that makes it possible to distinguish
bacteria that carry the plasmid (and the
foreign DNA) from those that don't.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transforming Bacteria
Recombinant DNA
Gene for human
growth hormone
Gene for human
growth hormone
Human Cell
Bacterial
chromosome
Sticky
ends
DNA
recombination
Bacteria cell
Plasmid
Bacteria cell
containing gene for
human growth
hormone
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
DNA
insertion
Transforming Animal Cells
Recombinant DNA
Flanking sequences match host
Recombinant DNA replaces
target gene
Target gene
Modified Host Cell DNA
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transgenic Organisms
–Transgenic Organisms
• An organism described as transgenic, contains
genes from other species.
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Transgenic Organisms
–How are transgenic organisms useful to
human beings?
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transgenic Organisms
–Genetic engineering has spurred the growth of
biotechnology.
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Transgenic Organisms
–Transgenic Microorganisms
• Transgenic bacteria produce important substances
useful for health and industry. Transgenic bacteria
have been used to produce:
– insulin
– growth hormone
– clotting factor
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transgenic Organisms
–Transgenic Animals
• Transgenic animals have been used to study
genes and to improve the food supply.
• Mice have been produced with human genes that
make their immune systems act similarly to those
of humans. This allows scientists to study the
effects of diseases on the human immune system.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transgenic Organisms
•Researchers are trying to produce
transgenic chickens that will be resistant to
the bacterial infections that can cause food
poisoning.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Transgenic Organisms
–Transgenic Plants
• Transgenic plants are now an important part of our
food supply.
• Many of these plants contain a gene that produces
a natural insecticide, so plants don’t have to be
sprayed with pesticides.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
•Cloning
Cloning
Dolly and Bonnie
• A clone is a member
of a population of
genetically identical
cells produced from
a single cell.
• In 1997, Ian Wilmut
cloned a sheep
called Dolly.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Cloning
•Cloning Dolly
Donor Nucleus
Fused cell
Egg Cell
Embryo
Cloned
Lamb
Foster Mother
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Cloning
•Cloning Dolly
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
•Cloning Dolly
Cloning
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
•Cloning Dolly
Cloning
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
•Cloning Dolly
Cloning
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Cloning
•Cloning Dolly
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Cloning
•Cloning Dolly
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Cloning
•Researchers hope cloning will enable them
to make copies of transgenic animals and
help save endangered species.
•Studies suggest that cloned animals may
suffer from a number of genetic defects and
health problems.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall