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Islam and the Islamic World
Muhammad’s Religion
Was an orphan
He married a wealthy
Became a social activist
Opposed materialism in
Meccan Society
At 40 had revelations was
visited by the angel
Angel brought word of God
Collected in a sacred book
Qur'an (Reciting)
A call to Arabs to submit to
God’s will as revealed
through the “prophet”
This Religion is called
Islam and its followers
are called Muslims
Both indicate submission
and surrender
His message was not new
but final and definitive
He was the last of the
prophets that God would
A monotheistic and Theocentric religion (like
AD –Muhammad and followers made to
flee Mecca
 622
After turning it into a trade center they fled to
Marks the beginning of the Islamic migration
AD – His army is powerful enough to
persuade Mecca to submit to his authority
 624
Cleansed the Kaaba of idols and made it an
Islamic shrine.
Be honest and modest in dealings and behavior
Be unquestionably loyal to the Islamic Community
Abstain from pork and alcohol
Pray facing Mecca five times a day
Contribute to support the poor and needy
Fast during daylight hours for one month each year
Make a pilgrimage to the Kaaba at least once in your
Muslim Marriages
Muslim men could have four wives
*Treat them all justly and equally
*Could have as many concubines as they wished
*Could divorce with declaration of intent
*Wife could also initiate but procedure more involved
*Only a husband could see her face
Islamic Diversity
 Successful
in unifying Arab tribes
 Disputes on who was going to succeed in
Muhammad’s authority
 Disputes on doctrinal issues (was it only for Arabs?)
 Kharijutes: Ali leader wanted to exclude all but
rigorous and pure
Was assassinated by a member
 Shi
`a: “Partisans of Ali” was more influential
A true Imam (ruler) should make decisions
 Sunnis:
Followers of Sunna (tradition)
Put loyalty first
Reject exclusionism and purism of the Kharijutes and
Islamic Empires
 Muhammad’s
1st three successors
Caliphs: Abu Bakr (632-634)
Umar (634-644)
Uthaman (644-656)
 Built
a strong empire stretching from Spain to India
 750 – Capitol moved from Mecca to Damascus in a
civil war
 Established Baghdad as a major Islamic city
 Arabs gained Christian converts in N. Africa and Spain.
 Charles Martel—Ruler of the Franks
Defeated a Arab raiding party at Portieres
This ended Arab attempts to enter Europe by way of Spain
 Leo
III ---Kept Muslims out of Eastern Europe at
Muslim Expansion again threatened when Constantinople fell to
the Ottoman Turks Europe.
Western Debt to Islamic Culture
 Christians
were hostile to Muslims
But learned about many technologies from them
 Made
philosophy and science as well as works of
Greeks available to West, in Latin translation.
 Created manuals for childbirth and child care that
many western mid-wives used
 Multilingual Jewish scholars were able to create