Download 10.2: Dihybrid Crosses

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Calculate and predict the genotypic
and phenotypic ratio of offspring of
dihybrid crosses involving unlinked
autosomal genes.
Genotype-The genetic makeup of an organism
that includes their biological
 Phenotype-The physical makeup of an
organism that includes their physical
Possible phenotypes
Corresponding genotypes
YY or Yy
RR or Rr
YY = 2 dominant
Yy = one
dominant, one
yy = 2 recessive
Dihybrid Crosses involve two genes
which control two
 We can use
dihybrid crosses
to calculate and
predict the
genotypic and
phenotypic ratio
of offspring
involving unlinked
autosomal genes.
 Autosomal
Genes- A gene that
is not located on a sex
*When a gene is unlinked, they
are found on different
chromosomes and can be
segregated by Random
Assortment of meiosis, during
Metaphase II.
In order to calculate the genotypic and
phenotypic ratio:
› 1) Determine the parent’s genotypes
› 2) Make and solve dihybrid cross
› 3) Calculate and predict genotypic and
phenotypic ratios.
Distinguish between autosomes and sex
Autosomes- General
chromosomes that carry
genetic instruction and any
chromosome other than a
sex chromosome; come in
Sex chromosomes- Come in
pairs also, but there are two
types, X & Y. For humans, the
Y chromosome is the
“determining factor” as it
determines whether or not
the embryo is male or
Explain how crossing over between nonsister chromatids of a homologous pair in
prophase I can result in an exchange of
Crossing over, also
known as
recombination, is the
exchange of chromosome
segments between nonsister chromatids in
Alleles - an
alternative form of
a gene (one
member of a pair)
that are located at a
specific position on a
specific chromosom
e. The DNA codings
on an allele
determine traits that
are passed on from
parents to offspring.
During crossing over, “slices” of
homologous chromosomes’ DNA are
exchanged with non-sister chromatids of
a homologous pair. Because of this,
alleles are exchanged as the alleles from
one chromatid are being exchanged
with the alleles on a non-sister chromatid.
"Dihybrid Cross." The Biology Project. Web. 09 Feb. 2012.