Download Missionary Mercenaries - Tallwood

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Hussite Wars wikipedia , lookup

Mongol Armenia wikipedia , lookup

Church of the Holy Sepulchre wikipedia , lookup

House of Lusignan wikipedia , lookup

Franco-Mongol alliance wikipedia , lookup

Livonian Crusade wikipedia , lookup

William of Tyre wikipedia , lookup

Siege of Antioch wikipedia , lookup

Third Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Siege of Acre (1189–1191) wikipedia , lookup

Kingdom of Jerusalem wikipedia , lookup

Rhineland massacres wikipedia , lookup

Savoyard crusade wikipedia , lookup

History of Jerusalem during the Kingdom of Jerusalem wikipedia , lookup

Battle of Nicopolis wikipedia , lookup

Northern Crusades wikipedia , lookup

Siege of Acre (1291) wikipedia , lookup

Fourth Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Despenser's Crusade wikipedia , lookup

First Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Albigensian Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Second Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Barons' Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Shelby Creeley
Shae Orman
The Crusades
The Crusades were a series of
religious driven conquests
waged by Christian Europe
against opponent’s around
the “Holy Land” but mostly
against the Muslim’s.
Crusaders took a vow to grant
them indulgence
relinquishing past sins.
Some of the crusades were
diverted against other
Christians (such as the
sacking of Constantinople)
due to internal struggles.
The Crusades:
1. First Crusade
2. Second Crusade
3. Third Crusade
4. Fourth Crusade
5. Albigensian Crusade
6. Children’s Crusade
7. Fifth Crusade
8. Sixth Crusade
9. Seventh Crusade
10. Eighth Crusade
11. Ninth Crusade
And many more that will not be mentioned…
First Crusade
Ambassadors sent by Byzantine Emperor Alexius I sent for help to
defeat the Seljuk Turks.
Pope Urban II sent out for all Christians to go to war, promising those
who died would obtain immediate remission of their sins.
For the first decade, the Crusaders pursued a policy of terror against
Muslims and Jews that included mass executions, the throwing of
severed heads over besieged cities walls, exhibition and mutilation of
naked cadavers, and even cannibalism, as was recorded after the Siege
of Maarat. (Picture above.)
Antioch fell to the Franks in 1098 after a lengthy siege.
The second half was the siege of Jerusalem, they won it.
Second Crusade
After a rather short period of peace,
but then the Muslim’s conquered
A new crusade, aided by the
Portuguese, retook Lisbon in 1147.
The others bits of the crusade other
two thirds of the crusade (Wendish
and Rhineland) failed though.
In 1187 Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, recaptured Jerusalem.
The Muslim’s held the city at ransom from the Frank’s, but left the churches and
temples in one piece.
Angry at the Egyptians actions, Pope Gregory VIII called for another Crusade.
After reaching port, Richard the Lionheart promised to leave noncombatants
unharmed if the city of Acre surrendered. The brutality of an outnumbered army in a
hostile land could be seen again when the city surrendered and Richard proceeded to
massacre everyone, despite his earlier promise.
From the Frankish point of view, an oath made to a non-Christian was no oath at all.
Philip left, in 1191, after the Crusaders had recaptured Acre from the Muslims
They defeated the Muslims near Arsurf, recaptured the port city of Jaffa, and were
in sight of Jerusalem.
Richard didn’t believe the crusaders would be able to hold Jerusalem once it was
captured, as most of the Crusaders returned to Europe, and the crusade ended
without the taking of Jerusalem.
Richard left the following year after negotiating a treaty with Saladin.
The treaty allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to make pilgrimages to the Holy
Land, though it remained under Muslim control.
In 1202 Pope Innocent III Initiated the Fourth
Crusade with the intention of invading
Jerusalem through Egypt.
They lacked the necessary money, arms, and
other miscellaneous materials, and tried to get it
from Constantinople.
A series of problem broke out, and the
crusaders ended up sacking Constantinople in
So, they never got to Jerusalem, but they did
conquer something.
•The Albigensian Crusade was launched in 1209 to
eliminate the heretical Cathars of Occitania (the south of
modern-day France).
•It took about a decade of struggling.
•In the end, both the Cathars and the independence of
Southern France were exterminated.
An outburst of sudden
enthusiasm created a
gathering of children in
France and Germany,
which Pope Innocent III
read as a sign from God
to rekindle the
devoutness of their
unworthy elders.
French were led by: Stephen
German were led by: Nicholas
7,000 kids
None of these “suddenly devoute”
children ever reached the Holy Land.
Those who didn’t return home either
died of starvation or dehydration. Or,
they were sold into slavery in Egypt or
North Africa.
Fifth Crusade 1217–1221
Austria, Hungary, and the King of
Antioch combined forces to take
back Jerusalem. They captured
Damietta, Egypt in 1219, and
attempted an attack on Cairo in
1221. They lost. An attack from
Egypt drove back the Crusaders
again, and created an 8-year
peace agreement. The Crusade
was ultimately a failure.
Sixth Crusade
Emperor Fredrick II was excommunicated in 1228 by Pope Gregory IX for failing to create
a Crusade as he had promised.
He then set sail for Brindisi, landed in Palestine, and through diplomacy delivered
Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem to Christian forces after ten years of work.
In 1229, after failing to conquer Egypt, Fredrick II he made a treay with the Sultan of
The treaty allowed Chritians to rule over most of Jerusalem, and Muslim’s over the Dome
of Rock.
Seventh Crusade
1248 – 1254
The crusaders were drawn into battle at La Forbie in Gaza.
The Crusaders and their mercenaries were easily defeated within forty-eight hours.
Although this caused no allover protest in Europe (as the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 had),
Louis IX (King of France) organized another crusade against Egypt.
It was another failure.
Eighth Crusade
The eighth Crusade was organized
by in 1270 Louis IX , initially to
come to the aid of the remnants of
the crusader states in Syria.
However, the crusade was
diverted to Tunis, where Louis
spent only two months before
Obviously that’s as far as it got.
Ninth Crusade
Edward I took on an
expedition against
Baibars, after having
accompanied Louis on
the Eighth Crusade.
Louis died in Tunisia.
The Ninth Crusade
was deemed a failure
and ended the
Crusades in the
Middle East.
In their later years, the Crusaders
faced with the threat of the Egyptian
Although the Mongols successfully
attacked Damascus, contact with the
Crusaders was often cut off.
The Mamluks eventually made good
their pledge to cleanse the entire
Middle East of the Franks. With this
final campaign, the Christians unable
to leave the cities were massacred or
enslaved and the last traces of
Christian rule in the Levant
What’s the Point?
Rule 1: Follower’s of missionary religions,
especially widespread ones, will attempt to
conquer (for the sake of conversion) any
area ruled by a different religion.
Rule 2: Any rule, even one set by a God, can
be changed to suit the needs at the time.
(Though how they justify massacre’s and
cannibalism, no one can tell.)
Information from:
"Crusades." Wikipedia. 17
November 2008. Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc.. 17 Nov 2008
Bréhier, Louis. "Crusades."
The Catholic Encyclopedia.
Vol. 4. New York: Robert
Appleton Company, 1908. 17
Nov. 2008
Picture’s from: