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Transcript
3
Cells and Tissues
PART A
PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University
ESSENTIALS
OF HUMAN
ANATOMY
& PHYSIOLOGY
EIGHTH EDITION
ELAINE N. MARIEB
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cells and Tissues
 Carry out all chemical activities needed to
sustain life
 Cells are the building blocks of all living
things
 Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in
structure and function
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Anatomy of the Cell
 Cells are not all the same
 All cells share general structures
 Cells are organized into three main regions
 Nucleus
 Cytoplasm
 Plasma membrane
Figure 3.1a
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
The Nucleus
 Control center of the
cell
 Contains genetic
material (DNA)
 Three regions
 Nuclear
membrane
 Nucleolus
 Chromatin
Figure 3.1b
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Nuclear Membrane
 Barrier of nucleus
 Consists of a double phospholipid membrane
 Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange
of material with the rest of the cell
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Nucleoli
 Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli
 Sites of ribosome production
 Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm
through nuclear pores
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chromatin
 Composed of DNA and protein
 Scattered throughout the nucleus
 Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes
when the cell divides
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Plasma Membrane
 Barrier for cell contents
 Double phospholipid layer
 Hydrophilic heads
 Hydrophobic tails
 Also contains protein, cholesterol, and
glycoproteins
PRESS
TO PLAY
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE ANIMATION
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Plasma Membrane
Figure 3.2
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Plasma Membrane Specializations
 Microvilli
 Finger-like
projections that
increase surface
area for absorption
Figure 3.3
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Plasma Membrane Specializations
 Membrane junctions
 Tight junctions
 Desmosomes
 Gap junctions
Figure 3.3
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasm
 Material outside the nucleus and inside the
plasma membrane
 Cytosol
 Fluid that suspends other elements
 Organelles
 Metabolic machinery of the cell
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Figure 3.4
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Ribosomes
 Made of protein and RNA
 Sites of protein synthesis
 Found at two locations
 Free in the cytoplasm
 Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
 Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances
 Two types of ER
 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Studded with ribosomes
 Site where building materials of cellular
membrane are formed
 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Functions in cholesterol synthesis and
breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification
of drugs
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Golgi apparatus
 Modifies and packages proteins
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Lysosomes
 Contain enzymes that digest nonusable
materials within the cell
 Peroxisomes
 Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes
 Detoxify harmful substances
 Break down free radicals
(highly reactive chemicals)
 Replicate by pinching in half
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Mitochondria
 “Powerhouses” of the cell
 Change shape continuously
 Carry out reactions where oxygen is used
to break down food
 Provides ATP for cellular energy
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cytoplasmic Organelles
 Centrioles
 Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules
 Direct formation of mitotic spindle during
cell division
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cellular Projections
 Not found in all cells
 Used for movement
 Cilia moves materials across the cell
surface
 Flagellum propels the cell
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cell Diversity
Figure 3.8a–b
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cell Diversity
Figure 3.8c
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cell Diversity
Figure 3.8d–e
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Cell Diversity
Figure 3.8f–g
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings