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Transcript
Chapter 13: The Lymphatic System and Immunity
1.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
returns fluid to the bloodstream
absorbs fat molecules
defend the body against disease
all of these
D
2.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Lymph vessels are similar to cardiovascular
arteries.
veins.
arteries and veins.
B
3.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
What enters the subclavian vein?
lymphatic duct
lymphatic vessel
lymphatic trunk
all of these
A
4.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
What does red bone marrow do?
produces red blood cells
produces white blood cells
produces red and white blood cells
none of these
C
5.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Which produce antibodies?
T lymphocytes
macrophages
B lymphocytes
all of these
C
6.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
The tonsils are composed of
Peyer's patches.
lymph atic nodules.
stem cells.
B
Page 101
7.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Which are in lymph nodes?
lymphocytes
macrophages
lymphocytes and macrophages
C
8.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Lymphoma is
cancer of lymphoid tissue.
swelling of lymph nodes due to infection.
swelling due to excess tissue fluid.
infection of a lymphatic vessel.
A
9.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Lymphangitis is
cancer of lymphoid tissue.
swelling of lymph nodes due to infection.
swelling due to excess tissue fluid.
infection of a lymphatic vessel.
D
10.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Lymphadenitis is
cancer of lymphoid tissue.
swelling of lymph nodes due to infection.
swelling due to excess tissue fluid.
infection of a lymphatic vessel.
B
11.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Edema is
cancer of lymphoid tissue.
swelling of lymph nodes due to infection.
swelling due to excess tissue fluid.
infection of a lymphatic vessel.
C
12.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
The red pulp in the spleen contains
macrophages.
lymphocytes.
red blood cells.
all of these.
D
Page 102
13.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
The thymus is
larger in adults.
larger in children.
the same size in adults and children.
B
14.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Acid secretion occurs in the
respiratory tract.
intestine.
stomach.
C
15.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Cilia are located in the
respiratory tract.
intestine.
stomach.
A
16.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Normal occurring bacteria live in the
respiratory tract.
intestine.
stomach.
B
17.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Complement
is a series of proteins.
attracts phagocytes.
causes bacteria cells to burst.
is described by all of these characteristics.
D
18.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Interferon is a defense against
bacteria.
viruses.
fungi.
all of these.
B
19.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Histamine
increases the activity of macrophages.
makes the capillary more permeable.
prevents viral reproduction.
kills bacteria.
B
Page 103
20.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Pus consists of
dead tissue.
dead bacteria.
living white cells.
all of these.
D
21.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
T cells and B cells are
antigens.
lymphocytes.
macrophages.
neutrophils.
B
22.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
B cells enlarge and divide, forming
plasma cells.
memory cells.
plasma cells and memory cells.
C
23.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Plasma cells produce
antibodies.
histamines.
T cells.
antigens.
A
24.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Antibodies bind to
foreign substances.
antigens.
bacteria.
all of these.
D
25.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
T cells are responsible for
antibody-mediated immunity.
cell-mediated immunity.
plasma cells.
memory cells.
B
Page 104
26.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
T cells
are activated by macrophages.
may stimulate B cells.
release cytokinesis.
are described by all of these characteristics.
D
27.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Cytotoxic T cells may attack
antigen-bearing cells.
cancer cells.
infected cells.
all of these.
D
28.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
Allergies are due to
an excess number of antigens.
not enough antibodies formed.
antibodies being produced for substances that ordinarily would do no harm to the body.
C
29.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
What is meant by an autoimmune disease?
antibodies are produced too automatically
antibodies act against the individual's own tissue
antibodies are not produced
antigens resist antibodies
B
30.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
A vaccine contains
antigens.
antibodies.
antihistamines.
lymphocytes.
A
31.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
A booster
raises the antibody titer.
is given after the initial vaccine.
raises the antibody titer and is given after the initial vaccine.
C
Page 105
32.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Active immunity
occurs when antibodies are given.
occurs as a result of exposure to antigens.
means that antibodies are not made by the recipient.
occurs when antibodies are given and means that antibodies are not made by the
recipient.
Ans: B
33.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Passive immunity
occurs when antibodies are given.
is short-lived.
can only occur in breast-feeding infants.
occurs when antibodies are given and is short-lived.
D
34.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Antibodies given to individuals have come from
recovered donors.
immunized horses.
individuals never exposed to the disease.
recovered donors and immunized horses.
D
35.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
In which case does the recipient start making antibodies to the specific disease?
passive immunity
active immunity
when given the antibodies
passive immunity and when given the antibodies
B
36.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
__________ causes antibodies to attack the neuromuscular junction.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Multiple sclerosis
Myasthenia gravis
C
37.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
__________ affects the joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Multiple sclerosis
Myasthenia gravis
A
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38.
A)
B)
C)
Ans:
__________ causes antibodies to attack the myelin sheath.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Multiple sclerosis
Myasthenia gravis
B
39.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
The diseases mentioned in question 31 are referred to as
infectious.
antigen induced.
autoimmune.
age induced.
C
40. Describe the structure and function of a lymph node.
Ans: A lymph node has a fibrous capsule of connective tissue that dips down into the node
and divides it into nodules. Each nodule contains a sinus filled with lymphocytes and
macrophages. The function of the node is to purify the lymph of infectious organisms
and other debris.
41. Describe the structure and function of the spleen and the thymus.
Ans: The spleen is structured like a lymph node but it filters blood. The thymus gland varies
in size. It contains lymphocytes, which are destined to become T cells. It secretes a
hormone called thymosin, which stimulates the immune system.
42. Describe the antibody-mediated immunity response.
Ans: B cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity. When an antigen combines
with a B-cell receptor, the B cell enlarges and divides to give plasma cells and memory
cells. The plasma cells produce antibodies capable of attacking the antigen. This results
in immunity.
43. Why do elderly people have more infections than younger people?
Ans: They have lower resistance to disease than the younger person. For example, their
thymus gland is almost nonfunctional.
44. Explain the process of inflammation. Include the function of histamine in the process.
Ans: After an injury occurs, histamine is released, which causes the capillaries to dilate. The
dilated capillaries cause the skin to redden and proteins and fluids escape, resulting in
swelling. Neutrophils and monocytes begin to phagocytize microbes, which have
entered through the injured skin. As the body tries to overcome the infection, some
neutrophils die and produce pus.
45. How does interferon work in the body?
Ans: When a tissue cell is infected by a virus, the cell produces and secretes interferon.
Interferon binds to receptors on the surface of noninfected cells, causing them to
produce substances that interfere with viral replication.
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46. Trace the flow of lymph from the lymphatic capillaries to the bloodstream.
Ans: lymphatic capillary, lymph atic vessels, thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct, left
subclavian vein or right subclavian vein, bloodstream.
47. Explain the antibody-antigen reaction. How does it cause the destruction of microbes?
Ans: Antibodies bind to specific antigens on the surfaces of microbes in a lock-and-key
fashion. This binding prohibits viruses and bacteria from damaging body cells and
marks the microbes for destruction by nonspecific defense mechanisms like
phagocytosis or complement.
48. How do newborns acquire passive immunity? How is nursing involved?
Ans: Antibodies cross the placenta from the mother's blood and supply a newborn with
passive immunity. These antibodies eventually disappear and the infant becomes more
susceptible to infections. Breast-feeding prolongs passive immunity because antibodies
are transferred to the infant in the milk.
49. Explain the difference between AIDS and SCID.
Ans: SCID is an immune deficiency disorder that is inherited. AIDS is an immune deficiency
disorder that is acquired as a result of a viral infection.
50. Differentiate between nonspecific and specific defense, and give examples of each.
Ans: Nonspecific defenses protect the body against all types of pathogens and include
barriers to entry, the inflammatory reaction, and protective proteins. Specific defenses
protect the body against specific pathogens and include the activities of the
lymphocytes. B lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific pathogens and T
lymphocytes attack cells bearing specific antigens.
51. Describe how vaccines function to provide immunity.
Ans: A vaccine that will be used to protect an individual from a particular pathogen will
contain antigens like those found on the surface of that pathogen. When B lymphocytes
encounter these antigens they respond by producing antibodies. The antibodies provide
immunity.
52. Differentiate between passive and active immunity.
Ans: Passive immunity occurs when an individual is given antibodies to combat a particular
pathogen. Active immunity only occurs when an individual produces his or her own
antibodies against a pathogen.
53.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Apoptosis is
a form of cell division.
the production of antibodies.
a nonspecific defense.
programmed cell death.
D
Page 108
54.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Which is a primary lymphatic organ?
lymph node
spleen
thymus
tonsil
C
55.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Which is a form of nonspecific defense?
antibody-mediated immunity
cell-mediated immunity
natural killer cells
All of these choices are correct.
C
56.
A)
B)
C)
D)
Ans:
Which molecule creates holes in plasma membranes of virus-infected or cancel cells?
cytokine
interleukin
perforin
interferon
C
57. Describe the three stages of HIV infection as presented in the text.
Ans: Category A—The affected individual is an asymptomatic carrier. The HIV blood test is
positive and the infection can be transmitted, yet there are no symptoms.
Category B—The affected individual may exhibit swollen lymph nodes, night sweats,
fatigue, fever, diarrhea, and thrush and herpes infections.
Category C—The affected individual develops a fatal opportunistic disease.
Page 109