Download Genetics: Mitosis/Meiosis

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Genomic library wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics in stem-cell differentiation wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Mutagen wikipedia, lookup

Extrachromosomal DNA wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Polycomb Group Proteins and Cancer wikipedia, lookup

Y chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

NEDD9 wikipedia, lookup

X-inactivation wikipedia, lookup

Neocentromere wikipedia, lookup

Meiosis wikipedia, lookup

Ploidy wikipedia, lookup

Karyotype wikipedia, lookup

Polyploid wikipedia, lookup

Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Part 2
• Cell reproduction of somatic cells (all cells except sperm/egg)
• This is how we grow, develop, and repair
• Involves chromosomes: Complex structure of coiled DNA that carries all
genetic information (genes)
• Chromosome #
• Each species has a characteristic # of chromosomes
• Humans: 23 pairs (46 total)
• Dogs: 39 pairs
• Corn: 20 pairs
• Diploid: Pairs of similar
chromosomes (from parents)
• Haploid: one of each type of
• Gametes (egg 23 / sperm 23)
Autosomes: Do not determine
sex (1-22)
Sex Chromosomes:
determine sex (X,Y 23)
Male = XY
Female = XX
• Longest phase of cell’s life cycle
• Increase in mass
• Increase # of organelles
• Replication of chromosomes (DNA)
• G1 Phase: Gap prior to DNA replication
• S Phase: DNA replication
• G2 Phase: After DNA replication
• Chromosomes are copied
• Chromosomes appear as
threadlike coils
(chromatin) at the start,
but each chromosome
and it’s copy (sister
chromosome) change to
sister chromatids.
• Mitosis begins (cell
begins to divide)
• Centrioles (poles)
appear and move to
opposite ends of cell.
• Spindle fibers form
between the poles.
• Nuclear membrane
breaks apart.
• Chromatids (pairs of
chromosomes) attach to
the spindle fibers.
• They are aligned in
middle of cell.
• Chromatids separate
and begin to move to
opposite ends of the cell.
• Two new nuclear
membranes (nuclei) form.
• Chromosomes appear as
chromatin (threads).
• Cell membrane begins to
pinch together.
• Cell membrane continues
to move inward to create
two daughter cells.
• Each daughter cell has it’s
own nucleus with identical
• Modern Biology Books: Pg. 140
Review ? 1-8 (graded)
• A type of cell division in which the chromosome # is reduced by
• Production of gametes (sex cells) – these cells have half the #
of chromosomes.
• 2 Major sections of Meiosis:
• Meiosis I – reductive division
• Interkinesis – 2 cells form each with only one chromosome from the
• Meiosis II - Double stranded chromosomes become single stranded
• Cytokinesis – 4 haploid cells are formed which will become sperm or
• Fertilization: Fusion of gametes = reconstitutes the proper # of
• Trait: Genetic characteristic of an organism.
• Gene: DNA sequence that codes for a protein (may lead to a
• Allele: Different forms of a gene.